2 Liquid A liquid is a state of matter that assumes the shape of its container

2 liquid a liquid is a state of matter that assumes

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2. Liquid: A liquid is a state of matter that assumes the shape of its container. 3. Gas: A gas is a formless fluid that occupies a space and can be changed to the liquid or solid state only by the combined effort of increased pressure and reduced temperature. PKG ‐ H&S (05) 39
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WHMIS ROUTES OF ENTRY There are four major routes of entry of hazardous chemicals into the body. 1)Ingestion; eating or drinking : Problems may occur when employees eat or drink in areas where toxic chemicals exist. 2)Absorption (skin contact) : Some chemicals are able to pass through the skin and enter the body. Others enter through unprotected cuts and scratches. PKG ‐ H&S (05) 40
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WHMIS ROUTES OF ENTRY (cont….) 3) Inhalation (breathing) : Contaminants in the air can be inhaled and rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and then carried to all parts of the body. Some may remain in the lungs and cause irritation, which eventually could lead to lung disease. 4)Injection : This is not common, but can occur with needles, nails, and glass, and through the force of compressed air or pressurized liquids. The eyes may also be a route of entry. Usually, however, only very small quantities of chemicals in the workplace enter through the mouth or the eyes. PKG ‐ H&S (05) 41
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WHMIS DESIGNATED SUBSTANCES • A designated substance is defined as “a biological, chemical or physical agent or combination thereof, to which the exposure of a worker is prohibited, regulated, restricted, limited or controlled.” • Designated substances are especially dangerous when adequate controls are not put in place to protect workers. • Exposure to designated substances can cause cancer, strong allergic reactions, liver and lung disorders, and damage to the nervous system. • However, the signs are not always immediate or obvious. • Sometimes it can take years or even decades before the symptoms of a disease or disorder appear. PKG ‐ H&S (05) 42
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WHMIS Designated Substances (cont….) 1. Acrylonitrile 2. Arsenic 3. Asbestos 4. Benzene 5. Coke oven emissions 6. Ethylene oxide 7. Isocyanates 8. Lead 9. Mercury 10.Silica 11.Vinyl chloride PKG ‐ H&S (05) 43
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WHMIS All control programs must provide for the following: Engineering controls : o work practices and hygiene practices and facilities to control the exposure of a worker to the substance Methods and procedures to monitor : o Airborne concentration of the substance in the workplace o Worker exposure to airborne concentrations of the substance PKG ‐ H&S (05) 44
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WHMIS Personal records: o Maintained by the employer, of the exposure of a worker to a designated substance at the workplace o Maintained by physicians who have examined a worker under the control program, or under whose supervision clinical tests have been performed on a worker, of those medical examinations and clinical tests A training program : o For supervisors and workers on the health effects of the designated substance and the measures and procedures required under the control program PKG ‐ H&S (05) 45
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WHMIS
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