GCE ‘O’ LEVEL - THE HISTORY AND CULTURE OF PAKISTAN 2059/1
government by forcing Muslims across the border.
Hindus and Sikhs, perhaps fearful of
reprisals and a genuine desire to live in a Hindu nation, also contributed to the refugee problem
by crossing from Pakistan to India.
‘The Canal Water Dispute was the most important problem facing the newly established gov-
ernment of Pakistan in 1947’. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. 
: In their responses to part (c), many scored highly because they were able to ex-
plain why various problems caused such difficulties for the new government. Weaker answers,
however, described the nature of the problems without showing how they affected the new
country. Such answers could only score within level 2.
: Explains at least two. Canal Water Dispute to be explained for maximum marks.
Also produces a judgement or evaluation.
The Canal Water Dispute was one of the most serious problems since India now controlled
the water supply to Pakistan – this brought tensions to a head between the two countries as
Pakistan had to depend on India for its water supply.
The problem dragged on until 1959.
However there were other problems. Some Muslims in India had been submitted to terrible
atrocities and so thousands fled to Pakistan. They needed food and shelter and placed great
strain on the new government. It was essential following the creation of Pakistan to have a new
government immediately. However there was a shortage of properly qualified and experienced
personnel which made the task of running government departments extremely difficult. The
new government was also short of money.
Pakistan had been awarded 750 million rupees
under the final settlement but only received 200 million at first. This put enormous strain on
the new government. This was also the case with the division of the armed forces and military
assets. Many of the assets awarded were obsolete or out of order.
‘The formation of a government was the most important problem facing the newly established
country of Pakistan in 1947.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.  (N2009/P1/4c)
: In their responses to part (c) on the problems facing the newly formed country
of Pakistan, many candidates answered this very well and obviously had been attracted to
Question 4 for this part even though they might have scored lowly on parts (a) and (b). As in
Question 1 and 2 (c), to reach a Level 4 mark, candidates had to ensure that they included