11> International terrorism worsened in Lebanon, Beirut, and Libya. Reagan declared he would not negotiate with terrorists and organized punitive air strikes. 11> Reagan called the Soviet Union an "Evil Empire?' He wanted to roll Communism back and ensure a free world. He sent assistance to anti-Communist fighters in Afghanistan, Grenada, and Nicaragua. This became known as the "Reagan Doctrine?' "" The Iran-Contra Affair: American officials secretly sold arms to Iran, which was then engaged in the Iran-Iraq War, for help in freeing American hostages in Lebanon. Money secretly received from Iran for these arms was then handed over to the anti-Communist Contras in Nicaragua, despite a Congressional ban on U.S. aid to the Contras. When the plan was discovered, several high-ranking officials resigned, although Reagan himself claimed no knowledge of the deal. "" The Soviet Union was suffering from economic stagnation, corruption, expensive wars, and social problems like alcoholism. Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power in 1985 and attempted reforms. Glasnost ("openness") allowed people to openly criticize government and suggest change. Perestroika ("restructuring") allowed limited free enterprise to stimulate the economy. 11> Gorbachev withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan. 11> Reagan's plans for the Strategic Defense Initiative, to protect the United States against nuclear attack, would have been too expensive for the Soviet Union to match. Reagan and Gorbachev met in Iceland and agreed to reduce their nuclear arms. Chapter 16 I American Foreign Policy Since 1972 381
• The George H.W. Bush Presidency (1989-1993) ..,. George H. W. Bush was elected President in 1988. During his Presidency, independence movements spread across Eastern Europe and within the Soviet Union itself. Gorbachev refused to use force against them. The Baltic states won their independence; Poland elected a non -Communist government; and the Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989 . ..,. The Soviet Union dissolved at the end of 1991 when Russia declared its independence and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States with several other Soviet republics. Meanwhile, East and West Germany had reunited in 1990. The Cold War thus came to an end . ..,. Pressure from the United States and other countries eventually forced South Africa to end apartheid. Black South African leader Nelson Mandela was later elected President in 1994 . ..,. The Soviet Union's collapse meant the United States became the sole superpower. Bush used military power to promote a "New World Order" of democratic values. He sent U.S. troops to arrest Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega, and to chase Saddam Hussein's Iraqi forces out of oil-rich Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War. Bush also sent troops with food on a humanitarian mission to millions of starving people in Somalia. The Clinton Presidency (1993-2001) ..,. The end of the Cold War brought a "peace dividend" with a reduction in military spending . ..,. The sudden collapse of Communist dictatorship led to ethnic conflict in the former Yugoslavia.