IV administration adverse effects nauseous and transaminitis increase in liver

Iv administration adverse effects nauseous and

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- IV administration adverse effects nauseous and transaminitis increase in liver enzymes damage to liver - Remdesivir enters the cell and becomes active the RdRP picks up this instead of adenosine base as they have a similar structure and insert it into the RNA strand becomes defective and inactive viral RNA inhibits viral RNA production. exoN fixes problems in viral RNA strand and remove analogue and goes against effects of remdesivir. With mutant exon means even less viral RNA produced. May be resistance to remdesivir due to mutation in EXOn and detect analogue better stopping the drug having any effect. Shown to have effect against SARS-COV and MERS-COV in in-vitro studies in culture dish outside organism. - WHO concludes it has little or no effect as mortality and initiation of ventilation weren’t reduced with little or no effect. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine - Multiple immunomodulatory effects inhibiting cell function can alkalinise organelle PH like endosomes and lysosomes increasing PH to decrease function. Treat malaria.
- It is a zinc ionophore allows influx of zinc into cells and lysosomes anti-cancer effect? - Bind to sialic acids - In in vitro studies - It inhibits endocytosis - Endosome usually fuses with the lysosome where virus can enter and exit lysosome to infect cell. Chloroquine blocks this process by entering the endosome and lysosome alkalinising them increasing PH and they are not acidic like they are supposed to be become dysfunctional and may inhibit proton pump on lysosome. Bringing virus into cell is stopped. - Zinc ionophore – with cholorquine it attaches and guide it through plasma membrane to allow entry of zinc- Inhibits RNA polymerase activity block replication of viruses in cell culture study shows. Sialic acid attach to cell membrane of cell and S protein binds to sialic acid as well so little receptors chloroquine can bind to sialic acid preventing S protein binding to it and so prevents binding of ACE2 receptor too. Convalescent plasma therapy - Plasma who have recently recovered from a targeted disease and screening is done to identify suitable ones with desired neutralising antibody concentration to reduce viral load in infected patients. Increased improvements of symptoms in patients after being given 200ml of it increased oxyhaemoglobin saturation, decrease in inflammatory markers. - Lack of large scale trials, small sample size and failure to standardize dose of antibody given to patients. More research needs to be done and see if it is the plasma alone is working so remove any steroids or other antiviral drugs. - Need of randomised clinical trials Melatonin - Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties can help during cytokine storm face of COVID and could help neutralise free radicals from this inflammatory state.

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