Modern biotechnology today includes the tools of

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Modern biotechnology today includes the tools of genetic engineering .
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GE & GMOs 2 Genetic engineering (GE) is the technology that allows for selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism to another. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally.
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Safety Assessment of GM Crops 3 Weight of evidence approach GM proteins (eg. Bt gene) Gene source History of safe use Bioinformatics Digestibility/stability Mechanism of action/specificity Exposure Mammalian toxicity testing GM Crop Composition assessment – Substantial equivalence Animal feeding studies
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International Biotech Guidance 4 OECD Substantial Equivalence (1993) Not possible to demonstrate that any food is absolutely safe Composition and agronomic properties of the GM crop comparable to those in an appropriate non-GM comparator Codex Alimentarius Principles for Risk Analysis Guidelines for the Conduct of Food Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Recombinant-DNA Plants Allergenicity Annex Nutritional Composition Annex Guidelines for the Conduct of Food Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Recombinant-DNA Microorganisms and DNA Animals Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
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US Biotech Regulatory 5,6 Three Federal agencies review under a coordinated framework to ensure human and environmental safety FDA - safety and labeling of whole foods, food ingredients and additives Once tested and approved no labeling required to differentiate GM vs. Non-GM USDA/APHIS - biotech plants; field test inspection EPA - registration of use of pesticides and herbicides
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GMOs in Food 7 1 st trait commercialized in 1993 23 years in food supply Primarily for animal feed Human foods Most processed - oils History of safe use Currently 9 crops commercially 1 more and 1 animal coming to market soon 20+ Years
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Apples Potatoes Field Corn Sweet Corn Canola Alfalfa Soybeans Papaya Cotton Sugar Beets Zucchini and Yellow Summer Squash GMO Crops Available Commercially
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Global Adoption of Plant Biotech 8
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN World Health Organization of the UN Codex Alimentarius- FAO/WHO International authorities National authorities Who Says GM Foods are Safe? 9-12
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(The Economist 2003) Summary GMOs produced through genetic engineering are a part of agriculture biotechnology GM foods are regulated Robust established safety testing paradigm GM crops have been consumed safely for over 20 years GM crop adoption continues to increase
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Janet E Collins, Ph.D., R.D., CFS Senior Vice President Science and Regulatory Affairs CropLife America Washington DC [email protected] Thank You!
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