Ratio scale we can conceive of an absolute zero of

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Ratio ScaleWe can conceive of an absolute zero of length or that of time. For example, thezero point on a centimeter scale indicates the complete absence of length or height.But an absolute Zero of temperature is theoretically unobtainable. Ratio scale hasan absolute or true zero of measurements. It represents the actual amounts ofvariables. Measures of physical dimensions such as weight, height, distance etc.come under this category. In general, all statistical techniques are applicable withratio scales and all mathematical operations that one can carry out with realnumbers can also be carried out with ratio scale values. Multiplication and divisioncan only be used with the ratio scale, but not with other scales. Geometric andharmonic means can be used as measures of central tendency and coefficients ofvariation may also be calculated.Attitude Measurement and ScalingEvery object or service is supposed to possess some characteristics, whichfulfill certain needs of its consumer. These needs may be psychological, physical orsocial in nature. The characteristics of the product or service under considerationare called its attributes. The judgment of the consumer regarding the product orservice possessing certain attributes is termed as his belief. The term attitude refersto the mental state of the individual towards a product or service or its attribute. It
84implies the mental preparedness to act in a particular manner and influences theindividual’s behaviour toward the product or service under consideration.In the process of attitude measurement, the researcher is primarily interestedin measuring the mental state of the respondent. It may include the factors likeawareness, attitudes and decisions processes. An important characteristic of themeasures is that their verification is rather difficult. Since attitudes are affected byattributes and beliefs, so the first step in the attitude measurement is to select therelevant attributes of the object under investigation. Every object is supposed topossess many attributes, so it is advisable to measure only those attributes whichcan be related to the actions by the respondents.Age, education, profession etc. of the respondents are also supposed to affecttheir attitudes. So the second major issue in attitude measurement is the selectionof the procedure which can take care of the characteristics of the objects. The thirdmajor issue in attitude measurement is the selection of the data collectiontechnique. Questionnaire Methods and observation Methods are the commonlyused techniques in attitude measurement related studies.Scaling can be done in the following two ways:1.Making a judgment about some characteristic of an individual and thenplacing him directly on a scale that has been defined in terms of thatcharacteristic.

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