CLEP Psychology Notes

Ultradian rhythms cycle that occur more than once per

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Ultradian rhythms – cycle that occur more than once per day Insomnia – chronic inability to sleep Lack of Sleep can alter consciousness (sleep deprivation) Reducing alertness, awareness, and perception of events around us Can also result in altered state of consciousness, including hallucinations, mood alterations and body changes Is almost always corrected with additional sleep Sleep Spindles – when a person is first falling to sleep, easily awakened REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) Also called Paradoxical sleep because brain activity, blood pressure, heart rate closely resemble those of waking consciousness Dreams only occur during REM stage
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Second sleep cycle Discovered by Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky Sleep study – EEG – (electroencephalographs) study of brain waves EMG – (electromyography) study of muscle activity EOG – (electrooculographs) study of eye movement EKG – (electrocardiographs) study of heart activity Hypnosis – altered state of consciousness Defined by three basic characteristics o Highly focused attention, suggestibility, and willingness to do what hypnotist says and willingness to accept illogical situations One enters voluntarily Increase in suggestibility Inability or unwillingness to act on one’s own Distortion of reality Not everyone can be Hypnotized, some can and have been able to have surgery with anesthesia Helped some with pain Meditations – self induced state of altered consciousness Extreme focusing and attention Relaxation Associated with Eastern Cultures for many centuries Kinesthetic System Sense – ability to locate our body parts without seeing them Sensory receptors that signal movement and location of our body parts Stimulant Drugs legal for consumption which can enhance or elevate mind and body activity CAFFEINE, NICOTINE AND AMPHETAMINES Non-Legal – Cocaine Chemical stimulants Stimulate and activate the nervous system o Produce arousal, increased activity, and elevate mood Depressants Opposite of stimulants o Reduce external stimuli, slow body functions and decrease level of overt behavior o Alcohol is a depressant withdrawals cause delirium tremens know as the “DT’s” Cannibis Marijuana, hashish can also be Hallucinogen in high doses
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Narcotics Heroin, Codeine, Methadone, Opium Hallucinogens – have the most predictable effects on consciousness Main reaction is hallucinations, usually visual LSD – is a hallucinogenic drug o Users may experience Synesthesia, a condition of crossing-over senses. (I hear colored lights SSRI’s relieve symptoms of depression by decreasing serotonin reuptake (Prozac (most prescribed), Zoloft, and Paxil) Fewer side effects than other anti depressants Target a single neurotransmitter, serotonin Antipsychotic Drugs – drugs are chemicals that are effective in reducing psychotic symptoms Have been effectively used to treat schizophrenia Unpleasant side effects, muscle spasms, restlessness, excessive salivation, convulsions and tremors
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Ultradian rhythms cycle that occur more than once per day...

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