The tc environment is available to help the offender

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The TC environment is available to help the offender at every step of the awakening and transformation process. The goals are to create changes in both lifestyle and personal identity. Communal Living as Therapy Communal living is both the context and the tool in the therapeutic process. Both staff and residents are seen as agents of change. The transformation unfolds as a developmental process of multidimensional learning in the intimate climate of group affiliation and loyalty. According to De Leon (2000) , “The community teachings, which are collectively termed right living, consist of moral injunctions, values, beliefs, and recovery prescriptions” (p. 84). Learning the right way of living entails practice in a real community, and TC provides an around-the-clock setting in which residents can be monitored in all their routines: how they work, relate to peers and counselors, maintain personal hygiene, and participate in group and community meetings. Helping residents become invested in a peer self-help community is a fundamental step in preparing them to engage in the world outside. TCs are residential centers that adopt a hierarchical organization with progress phases that represent growing levels of responsibility and privilege. Peer influence, calibrated through a number of group activities, is used to help residents internalize social norms and externalize healthier social skills. Besides the role of the group as a primary catalyst of transformation, another basic TC ingredient is self- help. Self-help means that offenders in rehabilitation contribute to their own transformation. Mutual self-help implies that offenders also take partial responsibility for the change of other residents by mentoring and sponsoring peers, who in turn could reinforce an offender's own rehabilitation (see Gideon, in press ). TC treatment typically comprises three major phases. Phase 1, known as induction and early treatment, usually encompasses the first month of treatment and introduces the resident to the subculture of the treatment setting. The new resident learns the rules, nurtures trust with counselors and peers, begins an evaluation of needs, starts to appreciate the nature of problem behaviors, and works on readiness for change. Phase 2 is the main treatment stage and models prosocial attitudes and behaviors through a progression of increasing levels of achievement, responsibility, and privilege. Although ancillary services meeting legal, vocational, and psychosocial needs are routinely made available to residents, mutual self- help remains the backbone of TC intervention. The last stage, Phase 3, is the phase of reentry, which is designed to aid the resident's departure from the TC and return to the community. Post-residential aftercare services such as self-help groups, family counseling, and vocational guidance are often made available to TC graduates.

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