Analyzed crime rates in american cities around the

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Analyzed crime rates in American cities around the time television was introduced (Hennigan & others, 1982) In 34 cities where television ownership became widespread in 1951 The 1951 larceny theft rate took an observable jump In 34 other cities where a government freeze had delayed the introduction of television until 1955 A similar jump in the theft rate occurred in 1955 - Aggression as learned social behavior o Theories of aggression based on instinct and frustration Assume that hostile urges erupt from inner emotions Which naturally push aggression from within Social psychologists contend that learning also pulls aggression out of us o The rewards of aggression By experience and by observing others Learn that aggression often plays Same is true of terrorist acts Enable powerless people to garner widespread attention The primary targets of suicide-bombing attacks are not those who are injured But those who are made to witness it through media coverage (Marsden & Attia, 2005) Purpose is to terrorize with the help of media amplification o Observational learning Social learning theory of aggression (Bandura, 1997) The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished Believes that we learn aggression not only by experiencing its payoffs But also by observing others
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Acquire aggression by watching others act and noting the consequences A preschool child and toys (Bandura & others, 1961) Put to work on an interesting art activity The experimenter is in another part of the room with a lot of toys After a minute of working with the toys The adult gets up and for almost 10 minutes attacks the inflated doll with a mallet After observing the outburst The child is taken to a different room with many very attractive toys After two minutes the experimenter interrupts Saying these are her best toys and she must save them for the other children The frustrated child now goes into yet another room with various toys designed for aggressive and nonaggressive play Two of which are doll and a mallet Seldom did children who were not exposed to the aggressive adult model display any aggressive play or talk Although frustrated nevertheless played calmly Those who had observed the aggressive adult Many times more likely to pick up the mallet and lash out at the doll Watching the adult’s aggressive behavior lowered their inhibitions Often reproduced the model’s specific acts and said her words Observing aggressive behavior had both lowered their inhibitions and taught them ways to aggress The family Physically aggressive children tend to have had physically punitive parents Who disciplined them by modeling aggression with screaming, slapping and beating (Patterson & others, 1982) Such punitive behavior may escalate into abuse Although most abused children do not become criminals or abusive parents
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  • Fall '16
  • Relational aggression, Bushman,  Berkowitz

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