Asians the statistical significance of this finding could not be formally

Asians the statistical significance of this finding

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Asians, the statistical significance of this finding could not be formally tested. The magnitude of this lack of Asian representation is heightened when one considers the number of advertisements that featured as main product representatives either animated characters (3.0%) or ani- mals (1.2%). Evidently, New Zealand advertisers are reluctant to feature Asian men or women as the sole representative for their product, a sentiment reflected in Scott s ( 1990 ) survey of senior New Zealand advertising executives, some of whom openly expressed the view that certain ethnic groups lacked image appeal . Further, while mainstream White audiences are often presumed to have difficulty identifying with ethnic Others (Scott 1990 ), apparently no such difficulty is perceived in them identify- ing with amorous pots of yoghurt, talking rolls of toilet tissue, or quacking ducks, all of which featured as main product representatives in the advertisements sampled. M ā ori/Pasifika Women and Men While M ā ori/Pasifika men fared considerably better than M ā ori/Pasifika women, they remained significantly under- represented and were depicted as sole or single-ethnicity product representatives in 3.1% of advertisements ( n =33), a significant level of under-representation relative to actual population levels. M ā ori/Pasifika women were even less visible, and featured as sole product representatives in just five (.5%) advertisements (Table 2 ). Excluding advertise- ments which featured both genders, animals or animations and assuming gender equality, the expected frequency for M ā ori/Pasifika men and women was 19 for each group (50%). H9, which predicted that M ā ori/Pasifika women would be less visible than their male counterparts, was thus supported, X 2 (1, N =38)=20.63, p <.0001. H8 predicted that M ā ori/Pasifika men would be over- represented in the occupational categories of athlete and celebrity. This hypothesis was only partially supported; nearly a third of the M ā ori/Pasifika men who were featured as sole product representatives were athletes ( n =10) and they made up 20.0% of all those seen in this occupation, a significant degree of over-representation relative to all other groups combined (96.9%), X 2 (1, N =50)=47.54, p <.0001. Conversely, while there were six M ā ori/Pasifika men depicted as celebrities (5.0%) they were not statistically over-represented in this category, X 2 (1, N =119)=1.49, p =.2, ns . Further analyses relating to RQ1 and RQ2 aimed to shed further light on the product categories and occupations that M ā ori/Pasifika men and women were most frequently associated with. M ā ori/Pasifika men were significantly over-represented among service and sales workers ( n =10, 11.1%), X 2 (1, N =90)=19.23, p <.0001, and were most frequently featured as product representatives in a limited range of categories foodstuffs ( n =10), DIY/building supplies ( n =8), retail ( n =4), and public service announce- ments ( n =4) (Table 3 ). They were significantly over- represented in advertisements for DIY/building supplies, comprising 14.0% of all those seen in this product category, X 2 (1, N =57)=22.69, p =<.0001. In the case of M ā ori/ Pasifika women, little has changed since 1984: there were
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