diverse sample, people from different time periods, etc. ○ Effect Sizes ■ measures the magnitude of an effect across studies in a category (e.g. aggression) ■ tells us how meaningful differences are ○ Results of Gender Similarity/differences Hypotheses ■ 78% of effect sizes were small or close to zero ○ Moderate differences in: ■ Aggression ○ Large differences in: 9
■ Women better at Communication: ■ more likely to smile when being observed ■ better at expressing emotion ■ decoding nonverbal behavior ■ **Motor Performance & Sexuality** (from powerpoint) ○ Other Differences: ■ over 50% of men report thinking about sex daily, while women less than 20% ■ men report more arousals & fantasies ■ Men cause more fights about “not enough” sex ■ Lesbians report less frequent sex (and sex thoughts) ■ Women’s fantasies more with familiar, men with strangers/multiple partners ● Love ○ Triangulating Theory of Love (Sternberg, 1986) ■ 3 Types of Love: ● Passion ○ has to do with being infatuated ● Intimacy ○ if you’re only experiencing intimacy love - liking love ● Commitment ○ if you’re only experiencing commitment love - empty love ○ Intimacy + Commitment = Companionate Love (IC=C) ○ Commitment + Passion = Fatuous Love (CP=F) ○ Passion + Intimacy = Romantic Love (PI=R) ■ All 3 = Consummate Love ■ None of Them = Non-Love February 12, 2015 Passionate Love vs. Companionate Love Passionate Love ● “a state of intense longing for union with another. Passionate love is a complex functional whole including appraisals or appreciations, subjective feelings, expressions, patterned psychological processes…” 10
● Put simply: ○ passionate love has cognitive, emotional and behavioral characteristics ○ also: characterized by physiological arousal ○ belief the other is the cause of that arousal ● Cognitive characteristics: ○ intense focused attention ○ obsessive thinking (tend to talk about significant other a lot) ● Affective (emotional) characteristics: ○ euphoria: a feeling of intense happiness ○ emotional dependency ○ increased energy ● Behavioral characteristics: ○ seeking proximity ○ sexual bidding (desire for physical contact with them) ● Universal ○ all societies have a word to describe passionate love ○ suggests that it evolved to encourage mating, save time during courtship ● The physiology of passionate love ○ the “symptoms” of passionate love resemble those of addiction ○ is it possible they activate the same regions of the brains? ■ don’t they??? ● Brain Study ○ had people bring in pictures of their “beloved” then researchers had pictures of another person relatively similar ■ looking at the ventral tegmental area (VTA) -- reward area of our brain ○ found that when the person is looking at their “beloved” the VTA lights up, while looking at the other picture of similar person does not ■ suggests that passionate love may have evolved to promote partner choice, which helps to conserve time and energy associated with courtship ○ if you’re passionately in love with someone, you focus on that person and ignore others.
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- Spring '08
- partner, passionate love , What We Consider to Be Normal Gender Behavour