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Amount of steroid present determines amount of target

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magnitude of the regulatory effect. Amount of steroid present determines amount of target cellsresponse. Can take 45 minutes to several days before the full effect is seenAnabolic Steroid Hormones: synthetic substances that are related to the male sex hormones. They stimulate production of protein that is used to build muscle and leads to an increase in the production of testosterone. Testosterone is critical to the development of lean muscle mass. Alsopromotes the release of the growth hormone which stimulates growth, especially skeletaloNonsteroid Hormones: AKA PROTEIN HORMONESMust have a cellular receptor protein at the surface of the plasma membraneInteraction between nonsteroid hormones and receptor protein activates a cascade of chemical reactions resulting in the target cells response to the hormoneNonsteroid hormones have a quick responseIncludes: Proteins(Growth hormone, prolactin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin, glucagon); Glycoproteins(follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin);Peptides(antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, somatostatin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, atrial natriuretic hormone);Amino Acid Derivatives- Amines(norepinephrine, epinephrine, melatonin) and Iodinated amino acids(thyroxine, triiodothyronine) All hormones with the exception of sex hormones and those from the adrenal cortex.Typically operate according to a mechanism originally called the second messenger model or fixed membrane receptor model. In this model the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) can be activated to bind to the nucleotide guanosine triphosphate and then activates adenyl-cyclase which promotes removal of two phosphate groups from ATPThe fundamental building blocks of nonsteroid hormones are amino acids. They are water soluble. Because they are water soluble they cannot pass through the lipid membrane and must rely on another way to penetrate the target cell and deliver the message.The second messenger model is a theory in which the nonsteroid hormone is the first messengerwhich provides communication between the endocrine gland and a membrane receptor of the target organ/cell. Another molecule such as cyclic AMP (second messenger that delivers information inside the cell and thus regulates cellular activities) provides communication within the hormones target cell. Cyclic AMP causes thyroid cells to respond to thyroid stimulating hormone by secreting a thyroid hormone such as thyroxine.cAMP activates or inactivates protein kinase. Some nonsteroid hormone use inositol and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as a second messengerFixed membrane receptor GPCR activates a chain of integral membrane proteins that can in turn trigger opening of calcium channels in the plasma membrane- creates the ability for Ca++ calmodium to form as another 2ndmessengerGeneral Principles of Hormone Action:

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Term
Fall
Professor
ProfW
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