ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

People use a number of shortcuts when they judge

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People use a number of shortcuts when they judge others because perceiving and interpreting what others do is burdensome. Selective perception is when people selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Because people can't assimilate all that they observe, they take in bits and pieces. The bits and pieces that are taken in are selectively chosen according to a person’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Selective perception allows one to “speed-read” others, but not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. The Halo effect is drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic. When we draw a general conclusion about a person based on a single characteristic such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance , a halo effect is operating. For example, this event frequently occurs when students judge their classroom instructor. Students may isolate a single trait such as enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on this one trait. Thus an instructor may be quiet, assured, knowledgeable, and highly qualified, but if his style lacks zeal, he will be rated lower on a number of other characteristics. Contrast effects are evaluations of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. An example of how contrast effects operate is an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule. The candidate is likely to receive a more favorable evaluation if preceded by mediocre applicants, and a less favorable evaluation if preceded by strong applicants The tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people is called projection. It is easy to judge others if we assume that they are similar to us. For instance, if you want challenge and responsibility in your job, you might assume that others want the same as well. Or if you’re honest and trustworthy, you might take it for granted that other people are equally honest and trustworthy. People who engage in projection tend to perceive others according to what they themselves are like rather than according to what the person being observed is really like. Stereotyping is judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. In organizations, comments are frequently heard that represent stereotypes based on gender, age, nationality, and even weight. Stereotyping. For example, “Women won’t relocate for a promotion”; “men aren’t interested in child care”; “older workers can’t learn new skills”; Asian immigrants are hardworking and conscientious”; “overweight people lack discipline.”
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