Provides a diagnosis andor possible treatment then

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provides a diagnosis and/or possible treatment then the patient can assume the fifth and final stage of the typical illness experience: recovery and rehabilitation. One can also see illness experience as a biographical disruption between one’s former healthy self with the current ill self brought about by the experience of illness. Personal accounts of the experiences of serious illnesses are called autopathographies . Social causes of illness: This is in contrast to the biomedical model that may only look at biological and physiological causes to disease. This approach looks to social factors that may play a role in illness, such as social inequalities, environmental exposures, living conditions, lack of healthcare access, stressors, etc. One way of determining social causes of illness would be implementing social epidemiological methods. Stress and health outcomes: Stressors are more obvious in more unequal countries. Stressors tend to exacerbate illness symptoms and/or may be a cause of illness themselves. There could be acute and chronic instances of stress; either may be dangerous for one’s health. The claimed consequences of chronic stress includes, but is not limited to, mental illness, cardiovascular disease, skin rashes, hair loss, diminished immunity system, etc. There tends to be more stressors for low SES people than anyone else. Health policy could change this by dealing with the social causes of stress. For instance, the low income and low insurance rates for low SES folks are major stressors that could be treated by a universal income policy and/or universal healthcare. This is just one set of possibilities of course. Health inequalities: We primarily discussed this in terms of socioeconomic status (SES), race, gender, and sexuality. The largest inequalities in health (like in most social outcomes) are between high SES and low SES. That is, SES is seen as a social gradient of health such that high SES people have the best health outcomes, low SES people have the worst health outcomes overall, and middle SES people have health outcomes that are worse than the high SES folks but better than the low SES folks. Some researchers suggest that SES is the biggest cause of health outcomes, such that they call it the fundamental cause theory. In terms of race, we discussed
systemic racism and medical apartheid to understand the historical and contemporary differences in health treatments and outcomes between white people and people of color. Gender is another factor in health outcomes, such that men are more likely to be treated better than women for the same health issue, but men are less likely to go to the doctor than women. In addition, women are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental illness compared to men. We also talked about trans health outcomes versus cisgender outcomes, and lack of care (historically and contemporaneously) for LGBTQ+ folks overall.

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