4-79 • Recycling: recovering materials for future use • Recycling reasons – Cost savings – Environment concerns – Environment regulations (Page 149) Recycling (Page 149) Recycling
4-80 (Page 151) Remanufacturing (Page 151) Remanufacturing • Remanufacturing : Refurbishing used products by replacing worn-out or defective components. – Remanufactured products can be sold for 50% of the cost of a new producer – Remanufacturing can use unskilled labor – Some governments require manufacturers to take back used products • Design for Disassembly (DFD) : Designing products so that they can be easily taken apart.
4-81 (Page 143) Component (Page 143) Component Commonality Commonality • Multiple products or product families that have a high degree of similarity can share components • Automakers using internal parts – Engines and transmissions – Water pumps – Etc. • Other benefits – Reduced training for assemble and installation – Reduced repair time and costs
Page 143 4. Component Commonality • When products have a high degree of similarity in features and components, a part can be used in multiple products • Benefits: – Savings in design time – Standard training for assembly and installation – Opportunities to buy in bulk from suppliers – Commonality of parts for repair – Fewer inventory items must be handled
4-83 • Quality Function Deployment – Voice of the customer – House of quality (Page 153) Quality Function (Page 153) Quality Function Deployment Deployment QFD: An approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into the product and service development process.
4-84 (Page 154) The House of (Page 154) The House of Quality Quality Correlation matrix Design requirements Customer require- ments Competitive assessment Relationship matrix Specifications or target values Figure 4.3
Customer Requirements Importan ce t o Cust. Easy to close Stays open on a hill Easy to open Doesn’t leak in rain No road noise Importance weighting Engineering Characteristics Energy needed to close door Check force on level ground Energy needed to open door Water resistance 10 6 6 9 2 3 7 5 3 3 2 X X X X X Correlation: Strong positive Positive Negative Strong negative X * Competitive evaluation X = Us A = Comp. A B = Comp. B (5 is best) 1 2 3 4 5 X AB X AB XAB A X B X A B Relationships: Strong = 9 Medium = 3 Small = 1 Target values Reduce energy level to 7.5 ft/lb Reduce force to 9 lb. Reduce energy to 7.5 ft/lb. Maintain current level Technical evaluation (5 is best) 5 4 3 2 1 B A X BA X B A X B X A BXA BA X Door seal resistance Accoust. Trans. Window Maintain current level Maintain current level (Page 155)House of Quality Example (Page 155)House of Quality Example Figure 4.4
Kano Model Customer Needs Customer Satisfactio Excitement Expected Must Have (Page 156) The Kano Model (Page 156) The Kano Model Figure 4.6
Page 156 Kano Model • Basic quality – Refers to customer requirements that have only limited effect on customer satisfaction if present , but lead to dissatisfaction if absent. e.g. short cord, long cord • Performance quality –
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