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And bonds making it difficult to raise capital for

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and bonds, making it difficult to raise capital for any business expansion.Standard Costs _ are representative costs per unit of output that are established in advance of actual production orservice delivery. The are developed from anticipateddirect labor hours, materials, and overheadcategories (with their established cost per unit).Stock _ in business and finance, a share of ownership in a corporation. Shares in a corporation can be bought andsold, usually on a public stock exchange. Consequently, the owner of shares can realize a profit orcapital gain if the stock is sold at a price above what the owner originally paid for it.Stock Exchange_ organized market for buying and selling financial instruments known as securities, whichinclude stocks, bonds, options, and futures. Most stock exchanges have specific locations where thetrades are completed. For the stock of a company to be traded at these exchanges, it must be listed, andto be listed, the company must satisfy certain requirements. But not all stocks are bought and sold at aspecific site. Such stocks are referred to as unlisted. Many of these stocks are tradedover the counterthat is, by telephone or by computer.Stock Holder_ shareholder, owner of company stock,Stockholder’sEquity_ the amount available to the owners after all other debts have been paidSunk cost _ money which has been spent or capital which has been invested and which cannot be recovered dueto certain reasons. They are non-refundable cash outlay, such as earnest money on a house, capital thathas been invested and cannot be retrievedor money spent on passport.Supply _ is the quantity ofa certain commodity that is offered for sale at a certain price at a given place and time.Taxes;Income taxes_ expressed as a function of gross revenues minus allowable deductions.Property taxes_ are assessed as a function of the value of property owned, such as land, buildings, equipment,and so on, and the applicable tax rates. They are independent of the income or profit of the company.Sales taxes_ are assessed on the basis of purchases of goods or services and are thus independent of grossincome or profits.Excise Taxes_ assessed as a function of the sale of certain goods or services often considered non-necessities(alcohol, tobacco), and are hence independent of the income or profit of a business.The Law of Demand_ the demand for a commodity varies inversely as the price of commodity, though notproportionately.The Law of Supply _ the supply of commodity varies directly as the price of the commodity, though notproportionately.The Law of Supply and Demand _ when free competition exists, the price of a product will be that value wheresupply is equal to the demand.Time value of money_is the value of money figuring in a given amount ofinterestearned over a given amountof time. The time value of money is the central concept infinance theory.

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Term
Spring
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Inflation, Nilo T Aldon

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