Exemplar we store individual instances exemplars in

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Exemplar: we store individual instances (exemplars) in memory to categorize a new memory by matching it to an existing exemplar Knowledge based approach: allowing personal knowledge to influence how you categorize o Essentialism: raccoon study: kids believed you could turn a toaster into a coffee pot but not a skunk into a raccoon: reasoning why: when you see something living (a skunk), there’s something about it that makes it a skunk (something essential to it that did that). People are less resistant to changing objects in living things. o Donker vs. Blegdav Hierarchical (shows knowledge based approach): gets specialized as you go down o Problems: Typicality effect: when asked which is a bird, a robin or an ostrich, the robin has a faster response because it’s more typical Hierarchical effect: “a pig is an animal” may have a faster response than “a pig is a mammal”
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Association effect: “a peacock has feathers” may be faster than “a robin has feathers”, because peacocks are associated with feathers more often Nonredundancy effect: according to the structure, “animals can move” should be faster than “sharks can move”, but they have the same response rate o Levels: superordinate, basic, and subordinate Typicality and category membership don’t always go hand-in-hand (and resemblance) Chapter 10: Language
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