β
2
.
5
b
c
50
◦
10.3 The Six Circular Functions and Fundamental Identities
761
In Exercises
70

75
, use Theorem
10.10
to answer the question. Assume that
θ
is an angle in a
right triangle.
70. If
θ
= 30
◦
and the side opposite
θ
has length 4, how long is the side adjacent to
θ
?
71. If
θ
= 15
◦
and the hypotenuse has length 10, how long is the side opposite
θ
?
72. If
θ
= 87
◦
and the side adjacent to
θ
has length 2, how long is the side opposite
θ
?
73. If
θ
= 38
.
2
◦
and the side opposite
θ
has lengh 14, how long is the hypoteneuse?
74. If
θ
= 2
.
05
◦
and the hypotenuse has length 3
.
98, how long is the side adjacent to
θ
?
75. If
θ
= 42
◦
and the side adjacent to
θ
has length 31, how long is the side opposite
θ
?
76. A tree standing vertically on level ground casts a 120 foot long shadow. The angle of elevation
from the end of the shadow to the top of the tree is 21
.
4
◦
. Find the height of the tree to the
nearest foot. With the help of your classmates, research the term
umbra versa
and see what
it has to do with the shadow in this problem.
77. The broadcast tower for radio station WSAZ (Home of “Algebra in the Morning with Carl
and Jeff”) has two enormous flashing red lights on it: one at the very top and one a few
feet below the top. From a point 5000 feet away from the base of the tower on level ground
the angle of elevation to the top light is 7
.
970
◦
and to the second light is 7
.
125
◦
. Find the
distance between the lights to the nearest foot.
78. On page
753
we defined the angle of inclination (also known as the angle of elevation) and in
this exercise we introduce a related angle  the angle of depression (also known as the angle
of declination). The angle of depression of an object refers to the angle whose initial side is
a horizontal line above the object and whose terminal side is the lineofsight to the object
below the horizontal. This is represented schematically below.
θ
horizontal
observer
object
The angle of depression from the horizontal to the object is
θ
(a) Show that if the horizontal is above and parallel to level ground then the angle of
depression (from observer to object) and the angle of inclination (from object to observer)
will be congruent because they are alternate interior angles.
762
Foundations of Trigonometry
(b) From a firetower 200 feet above level ground in the Sasquatch National Forest, a ranger
spots a fire off in the distance. The angle of depression to the fire is 2
.
5
◦
. How far away
from the base of the tower is the fire?
(c) The ranger in part
78b
sees a Sasquatch running directly from the fire towards the
firetower. The ranger takes two sightings. At the first sighting, the angle of depression
from the tower to the Sasquatch is 6
◦
. The second sighting, taken just 10 seconds later,
gives the the angle of depression as 6
.
5
◦
. How far did the Saquatch travel in those 10
seconds? Round your answer to the nearest foot. How fast is it running in miles per
hour? Round your answer to the nearest mile per hour. If the Sasquatch keeps up this