You might have situation where you have 5 prizes to

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You might have situation where you have 5 prizes to give between 2 boys o 6-year old boys would rather throw away 5 th prize than to give one boy more erasers than the other Work by Frans de Waal & Sarah Brosnan looked at idea of equality preferences in monkeys and apes o They give monkey a rock, monkey has to give rock back, and they normally give monkey a grape They pay both monkeys grapes then they start paying only one monkey cucumbers o Monkey gets cucumber, other monkey gets grape, and monkey who gets another cucumber throws it Sometimes equal doesn’t mean fair – inequality feels more psychologically fair if someone does more work or effort o Equality and fairness sometimes conflict – both emerge early in development Money Continued We as humans are particularly sensitive to how we’re doing relative to other people o Relative wealth is something that humans are particularly sensitive to One reason for preferring inequality – our well-being feels better if we see that we’re doing better than other people Research suggests that at a certain point, inequality hurts everyone not just those at the bottom of the ladder o Comparison to the very top is very salient even for people near the top of the ladder Agreeableness – people who are kind, warm, trusting, trustworthy, and sympathetic o Big survey measured average agreeableness of a state – are states nice or not so nice Lowest agreeableness was Washington, D.C. & highest agreeableness was Mississippi & Alabama
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o Index of inequality – how much is the wealth held by just the top people Inequality is negatively related to agreeableness – more inequality, less agreeable People in Northern Europe w/ more equal distribution of post-tax income often rate themselves on average higher on a subjective ladder What’s Cooking in the Lab Welfare of the group or how much they can get out of the situation is maximized when they cooperate o Risk that someone will not contribute – if everyone did not share, there would be no gains Game of sharing and keeping candies tells you about trust and cooperation o Someone might be naturally thinks that they can trust other people to cooperate o Someone might have trust elicited – respond to other people’s behavior of cooperating o Someone might refuse to cooperate in order to maximize their own gain Some people believe the poor are more likely to cooperate since they better relate to other people who are poor o Empathize w/ others in the group and decide to cooperate together to help each other out If you look at people’s subjective economic status, people who think of themselves as lower on the ladder are more likely to show cooperative behavior and trusting behavior o They report a greater consideration of group welfare vs consideration of one’s own self-welfare We need experiments in order to detangle cause and effect of different questions o One experiment gave subjectively lower and higher wealth people $10 People who subjective lower in wealth more likely to give $10 to someone asking for money o
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