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-- If the rule of capture may not be relevant for animals, it is for oil and gasx.Libel= In admiralty law, a libel is the counterpart to a lawsuit and the libellant the counterpart to the P.xi.Rules of Capture and Wild Animals1.A trespasser who captures a wild animal on the land of another might still have no rights to the animal as against the landowner, even though the landowner never had actual physical possession or control and even though the trespasser doesa.The court may say that the landowner had “constructive” possession of the animalb.(Examples on page 36)xii.Constructive possession = denotes possession that has the same effect in law as actual possession although it is not actual possession in fact.1.The owners of land w/ unextracted oil, gas, or other minerals lying beneath its surface might not be in actual possession of those minerals, but they are often said to be in prior, constructive possession of them…hence, the legal maxim is that whoever owns the surface, also owns to the depths of the earth. xiii.Groundwater- whoever 1st captured the water was really the owner1.2day, groundwater extraction is commonly governed by the legislative and administrative programs2.there is a right to water, subject to the rights of everyone else.a.B/c ownership of wild animals had long been settled in terms of the rule of capture, the courts reasoned that ownership of oil and gas should be determined in the same manner. i.Animals belong to the owner of the land, and are part of it, so long as they are on or in it, and are subject to his control; but when they escape, and go into another lans, or come under another’s control, the title of the former owner is gone. Possession of land, therefore, is not necessarily possession of the gas. – If an adjoining, or even a distant, owner, drills his land, and taps your gas, so that it comes into his well and under his control, it is no longer yours, but his.3.Water rights in Fl. – Under American rule, whoever has R use to it, but since no proportion – water rights is highly regulateda.but there is prior appropriation and riparium rightsxiv.Externality- a social or monetary consequence or side effect of one’s economic activity, causing another to benefit without paying or to suffer without compensation1.Externalities v. Internal costs6
a.--(like kids, buying cd’s –that’s his internal cost, but w/ parents time, gas etc. that’s even more (that is the external cost)b.--consider who is taking the burden – don’t just worry about the internal costs, but also the externald.Creation i.Once one designs something that is considered property, to is entitled to it or to increases? (how to protect property rights)Remember The notion that the person who creates property also owns it may seem elementary, but the scope of such ownership is not always clear. Apart from statutes that specifically protect creators’ rights, such as copyright, trademark, and patent statutes, a creator’s ownership rights may be uncertain. For example, an artist’s painting or a secret food formula is