ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

The chain communication network rigidly follows the

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The chain communication network rigidly follows the formal chain of command . In contrast to this, the all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other Nonverbal communications are messages conveyed through body movements. This includes the intonations or emphasis that is given to certain words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and the receiver. The academic study of body movements is called kinesics. It has been argued that every body movement has a meaning. Body language adds to and often complicates verbal communication. A body position or movement does not by itself have a precise meaning, but when it is linked with spoken language, it gives fuller meaning to a sender’s message. The way individuals space themselves in terms of physical distance has nonverbal meanings. What is considered proper spacing largely depends on cultural norms. For example, what is “businesslike” distance in some European countries would be viewed as “intimate” in many parts of North America. If someone stands closer to a person than is considered appropriate, it may indicate aggressiveness or sexual interest. If farther away than usual, it may mean disinterest or displeasure with what is being said Filtering refers to a sender manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. For example, when a manager tells her boss what she feels her boss wants to hear, she is filtering information. As information is passed up to senior executives, it has to be condensed and synthesized by underlings so those on top don’t become overloaded with information. The personal interests and perceptions of what is important by those doing the synthesizing are going to result in filtering. Selective perception occurs when the receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. Receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them. The employment interviewer who expects a female job applicant to put her family ahead of her career is likely to see that in female applicants, regardless if the applicants feel that way or not. Extreme emotions, such as jubilation or depression, are likely to hinder effective communication. How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication message will influence how he or she interprets it. The same message received when a person is angry or distraught is likely to be interpreted differently when they are in a neutral state of mind. Words mean different things to different people. Age, education, and cultural background are three of the more obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions he or she gives to words. In an organization, people usually come from diverse backgrounds and, therefore, have different patterns of speech. Additionally, the grouping of employees into departments creates specialists who develop their own jargon or technical language. In large
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