Philo reasons that the evil in this world represents the lack of evidence of a successful, loving God. Now, it is possible to argue that, although God is able and willing to protect His creation from evil, He desires each person to form and execute decisions without His interference. This argument does not doubt God’s ability or desire to prevent wickedness and concludes He allows it because mankind desires it. However, it is simple to rebut this by recalling moral individuals from history, such as Horatio Spafford1, who endured trials of both moral and natural evils. These individuals suffered at the hands of both natural phenomena and other human beings; they did not desire or deserve such pain, but God’s failure allowed these injustices. If God had created a world with only good beings, evil would not exist. However, since such a world does not exist, Epicurus’s questions prove to be stumbling blocks to those who believe in the Christian God. Philo discusses four causes of pain in the natural world and explains why each is unnecessary. The first circumstance of pain is that of pain as a stimulus; Philo observes that pain is felt in different ways to encourage the subject experiencing the pain to take action. However, Philo argues the subject pursues pleasure as much as it flees from pain, so the Creator need not have created the stick since He created the carrot. In his second point, he gives the example of Caligula and Caesar as rulers who caused anguish among their people without interference from God, allowing them to bring destruction into the world. Thirdly, Philo1Horatio Spafford wrote the hymn, “It is Well with My Soul,” in 1873, days after his four daughters drowned on their way to a much-needed vacation in the wake of the death of their brother and the destruction of their father’s financial investments.