Once without error e recitation after you finish

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once without error E. Recitation – after you finish studying, close eyes and repeat aloud everything you read F. Mnemonic devices – strategies that increase memory, especially for material that is not easily organized 1. Acronyms - take the first letter of each item to be remembered and form a word, phrase or sentence with those letters (Roy G. Biv for colors in rainbow) 2. Acrostics – series of words, lines or verses in which the first letters form a word or phrase (e.g., Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge” to represent the musical scale EGBDF) 3. Visual imagery – visualizing associations between words
Spring 2013 Feldman - 22 a. Method of loci – involves pairing each item to be remembered with one of an organized set of familiar locations b. Peg-word method – involves pairing each item to be remembered in an interactive image with each item on a standard list Chapter 3 – Development I. Prenatal development A. Germinal stage – the first 2 weeks 1. Begins with conception a. Sperm fertilizes egg = zygote 2. Zygote duplicates into many cells 3. Ends when successfully attached to uterine wall B. Embryonic stage – beginning of week 3 through week 8 1. all of major body systems, organs & structures are formed 2. Ends when first bone cells form (1” long) a. resembles human being with limbs, fingers, toes 3. Amniotic sac (sac within the uterus that contains the embryo or fetus) a. placenta (membrane that permits the exchange of nutrients & waste products b/t the mother and her developing child) b. umbilical cord (tube b/t the mother and her developing child through which nutrients & waste products are conducted) C. Fetal stage – beginning of week 9 until birth 1. period of rapid growth & further development of body structures, organs, systems II. Teratogens – viruses and other harmful agents (including drugs, environmental toxins, etc.) that can have a negative impact on prenatal development A. Cocaine & heroin – miscarriage, prematurity, birth defects, tremors, sleep problems B. Alcohol 1. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) – facial deformities, mental retardation, behavior problems due to maternal alcohol intake early in prenatal development C. Smoking (tobacco) – reduces oxygen flow, causes respiratory problems, increases CO 2 , increases odds of prematurity, low birthweight, miscarriage, SIDS D. Thalidomide – babies born with flipper-like arms and/or legs III. What do babies have at the start? A. Reflexes 1. Permanent: swallowing, breathing, coughing, blinking 2. Temporary: Moro (startle reflex where they draw up their legs and arch their backs), Babinsky (fanning of the toes in response to stimulation on their feet), tonic neck, grasping, rooting, sucking, stepping/walking a. disappear in about 3-4 months B. Perception 1. Vision : poor at birth; 2-6 weeks can distinguish red/green but not pastels; about 3 months can most colors a. newborns focus best at about 9” b. prefer human faces to other visual images (by 2-3 months of age) 2. Hearing : poor at birth; few days after birth can hear soft voices, locate sounds, etc.
Spring 2013 Feldman - 23 a.

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