Open Door notes proclamations issued by Sec of State John Hay 1899

Open door notes proclamations issued by sec of state

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Open Door notes proclamations issued by Sec. of State John Hay (1899- 1900)demanding assurances from other imperial powers that China would be open to trade and investments of all peoples and that the colonial system could not be introduced into China ... Designed to clear the way for Am economic power to extend throughout the world, and prevent others from pre-empting the nonindustrialized areas of the world the Spanish-US-Cuban war - Cuba as US entry into imperialist rivalry of late 19thC Spain, like Ottoman empire, still clinging to a considerable empire in Caribbean, Pacific ... US covetous -in 1890s, serious rebel movements fighting to oust Spanish ... Spain responding in usual colonial way (reconcentration of population; brutal suppression of rebels) --Cuba: rebel army directed from US by Jose Marti ... considerable US investment in Cuban economy (US a key market for Cuban sugar) ... -US reponsive to sugar growers (losing their investment), suspicious of both parties (Spaniards and Cubans, rebel, mixed-race army), and subject, like everyone else, to "four needs" ... -great public sympathy for rebels ... US intervenes, quickly defeats Spanish (TR, Rough Riders) ... -rebel army treated poorly, a gov't. of occupation set up in Cuba and Puerto Rico ... ended in 1902, -Cuba a virtual dependency of US from then until 1959 when Cuban revolution breaks out (Puerto Rico a liberal dependency) -Platt Amendment US only agreed to pull troops from Cuba after Cuban government agreed to this ... reserved the right to intervene if Cuba were threatened by foreign conquest, domestic unrest ... a fitting symbol of open door imperialism: formal independence, but US maintained right to intervene going well meant prosperity for US business interests (soared after 1902) ... inevitable resistance to this (as in 1906, when Cubans protested in the streets against Platt Am.) ... as unrest began to look like revolution, US sends Marines ... stayed until 1909 ... ordered back in 1912 ... occupied Cuba from 1917-22 --this the pattern in rest of Latin America as well, where the US intervened (1900-1930) in Nicaragua, 39 40 41 42
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1/14/2015 9 Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, and, of course, Panama (created by US to build canal) VI. IDEOLOGICAL JUSTIFICATION: RACE AND ‘SCIENTIFIC’ RACISM New ideas about society went hand-in-hand with the New Imperialism. For example, Arthur Gobineau from An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races” : He compared “white, yellow and black races” and found whites were far superior. Social Darwinism: Social Darwinism was so labeled because it appropriated ideas that Charles Darwin put forward in his influential work, On the Origin of Species (1859). But distortion of Darwin Darwin’s work was concerned with evolution and how species in nature survived and reproduced. Emerging from this work was the idea that only the fittest among the various species are able to survive, a more or less chance outcome.
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