Chapter 02 - The Dynamic Environment of International Trade 2-51 99.(p. 39)Describe VERs. The VER is an agreement between the importing country and the exporting country for a restriction on the volume of exports. They are similar to quotas and also referred to as orderly market agreements (OMAs). A VER is called voluntary because the exporting country sets the limits; however, it is generally imposed under the threat of stiffer quotas and tariffs being set by the importing country if a VER is not established. AACSB: Analytic Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty Level: Easy Learning Objective: 02-04 The several types of trade barriers Topic: Trade Barriers 100.(p. 42-43)What are the main focus areas of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988? The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 was designed to deal with trade deficits, protectionism, and the overall fairness of America's trading partners. The bill covers three areas considered critical in improving U.S. trade: market access, export expansion, and import relief. ● The issue of the openness of markets for U.S. goods is addressed as market access. The act gives the U.S. president authority to restrict sales of a country's products in the U.S. market if that country imposes unfair restrictions on U.S. products. ● Besides emphasizing market access, the act recognizes that some problems with U.S. export competitiveness stem from impediments on trade imposed by U.S. regulations and export disincentives. Export controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), and export promotion were specifically addressed in the export expansion section of the act. ● Recognizing that foreign penetration of U.S. markets can cause serious competitive pressure, loss of market share, and, occasionally, severe financial harm, the import relief section of the act provides a menu of remedies for U.S. businesses adversely affected by imports.