Chapter 1 - Solution Manual

3 the right to receive the expected residual returns

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paragraph 810-10-55-42) for a discussion of expected losses. 3. The right to receive the expected residual returns of the legal entity. The investors do not have that right if their return is capped by the legal entity's governing documents or arrangements with other variable interest holders or the legal entity. For this purpose, the return to equity investors is not considered to be capped by the existence of outstanding stock options, convertible debt, or similar interests because if the options in those instruments are exercised, the holders will become additional equity investors. The objective of this provision is to identify as VIEs those legal entities in which the total equity investment at risk does not provide the holders of that investment with the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. If interests other than the equity investment at risk provide the holders of that investment with the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or if interests other than the equity investment at risk prevent the equity holders from having the necessary characteristics, the entity is a VIE. c. The equity investors as a group also are considered to lack the characteristic in (b)(1) if both of the following conditions are present: 1. The voting rights of some investors are not proportional to their obligations to absorb the expected losses of the legal entity, their rights to receive the expected residual returns of the legal entity, or both. 2. Substantially all of the legal entity's activities (for example, providing financing or buying assets) either involve or are conducted on behalf of an investor that has disproportionately few voting rights. This provision is necessary to prevent a primary
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17 beneficiary from avoiding consolidation of a VIE by organizing the legal entity with nonsubstantive voting interests. Activities that involve or are conducted on behalf of the related parties of an investor with disproportionately few voting rights shall be treated as if they involve or are conducted on behalf of that investor. The term related parties in this paragraph refers to all parties identified in paragraph 810-10-25-43, except for de facto agents under paragraph 810-10-25-43(d)(1). For purposes of applying this requirement, reporting entities shall consider each party’s obligations to absorb expected losses and rights to receive expected residual returns related to all of that party’s interests in the legal entity and not only to its equity investment at risk. 15-15 Portions of legal entities or aggregations of assets within a legal entity shall not be treated as separate entities for purposes of applying the Variable Interest Entities Subsections unless the entire entity is a VIE. Some examples are divisions, departments, branches, and pools of assets subject to liabilities that give the creditor no recourse to other assets of the entity. Majority-owned subsidiaries are legal entities separate from their parents that are subject to the Variable Interest Entities Subsections and may be VIEs.
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