Encapsulated h influenzae are more virulent type b

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Encapsulated H. influenzae are more virulent. Type b (Hib), an encapsulated serotype, causes bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute bacterial meningitis. Hib vaccine decreased incidence of invasive Hib disease from 40-100/100,000 to 1.3/100,000, in U.S. children from 1980-1990. Species : _______ ______ Images: H. influenzae , in Gram stain of sputum sample, Bobjgalindo; H. influenzae colonies on Blood Agar , CDC; X and V test for H. influenzae . From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Tiny obligate intracellular pathogens. Once considered a virus , because of small size and reproduction inside host cells. Stain Gram -, but no cell wall. Surrounded by two membranes, with no peptidoglycan between. Weird lifecycle that involved two forms: - Elementary bodies (EB): Dormant, can survive outside of cells, infective form. - Reticluate bodies (RB): Grow and multiply in the host cell. Host cell is killed when EB’s emerge. Cell death results in immune response that can damage area, especially if same site is reinfected. Bacterial Genus : ________ Images: Human pap smear showing Chlamydia in the vacuoles, Dr. Lance Liotta Laboratory; Life cycle of the Chlamydia , Huckfinne From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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_________ “Silent" disease: Most infected women (85%) and some infected men (25%) have no symptoms. Can cause serious complications that resulting in irreversible damage, including infertility. Transmitted during sex. Can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth. Most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States…and very underreported. Estimate is 2.8 million new cases annually. ___________ Infection of conjunctiva. Leading cause of non-traumatic blindness. Causes scarring of conjunctiva, and eyelid to turn inward. Eyelashes scrape, and scar the cornea, causing it to no longer be transparent. Disease, Please: Chlamydia From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Organism : Treponema pallidum ; identified as causative agent of syphilis in 1913. Gram-, spirochete. Too thin to be seen without using a special stain such as Steiner silver. So Gram stain not useful. Transmission: Transmitted through direct sexual contact with infectious lesions. Never normal flora . Symptoms: Primary Stage: Starts with single sore (chancre). Infection to first symptoms ranges from 10-90 days. Chancre lasts 3-6 weeks. Secondary Stage: Body rash with possible fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, & fatigue. Symptoms resolve, but without treatment, infection progresses. Tertiary & Late Stage: Can last for years. Develops in ~ 15% of untreated people. Can appear 10 – 20 years after infection acquired. Disease can cause damage of internal organs throughout body. Symptoms include difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. Damage may be serious enough to cause death.
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