Attractiveness of alternative eg inc pay for those

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*use +ve incentives to encourage employees to accept change (inc. attractiveness of alternative) (e.g. inc. pay for those who accept) *unfreeze acceptance of status quo by removing restraining forces (reduce resistance (e.g. counsel employees individually, concerns heard & clarified) *** if resistance too high, use both - new situation must be refrozen so that it can be sustained over time
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P ART 5: R EORGANIZING THE W ORKPLACE → stabilize it by balancing driving & restraining forces - over time, norms will evolve to sustain the new equil’m; until that point, use more formal mechanisms Kotter ’s Eight- Step Plan for Implementing Change (John Kotter, 8 steps) - a more detailed approach than Three-Step Model Common failures that occur when managers try to initiate change: inability to create sense of urgency about need for change failure to create coalition for managing change process absence of vision for change & to effectively communicate that vision not removing obstacles that could impede achievement of vision failure to provide short-term & achievable goals tendency to declare victory too soon not anchoring changes in org’s culture UNFREEZING 1 Establish sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed 2 Form a coalition w/ enough power to lead the change 3 Create a new vision to direct the change & strategies for achieving the vision 4 Communicate the vision throughout the org MOVING 5 Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk-taking & creative problem-solving 6 Plan for, create, reward short-term “wins” that move the org toward the new vision 7 Consolidate improvements , reassess changes, make necessary adjustments in the new programs REFREEZING 8 Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship btwn new behaviours & org. success Action Research (5-step process) = a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate - provides scientific method for managing planned change - Benefits: -problem-focused (change agent objectively looks for problems , which determine type of change action) *NOT solution-centred! ( ) -resistance to change↓ (action research heavily involves employees in the process) 1) Diagnosis gather info about problems, concerns, needed changes from org’s members by asking ques’s, interviewing employees, reviewing records, listening to concerns of employees 2) Analysis synthesize info into primary concerns, problem areas, possible actions 3) Feedback - share w/ employees what has been found from steps 1 & 2 - employees develop action plans for bringing about any needed changes 4) Action carry out specific actions to correct problems identified
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P ART 5: R EORGANIZING THE W ORKPLACE 5) Evaluation compare & evaluate effectiveness of action plan & changes Appreciative Inquiry (Four D’s) = approach to change that seeks to identify the unique qualities & special strengths of an org, which can then be built on to improve performance -
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