whose expense these norms are being enforced. My chapter responds to the following questions: How is mid-20th century liberalism in tandem with White citizenry? Does liberalism embody a global manifestation of White citizenship? In what ways does liberalism impede the progress of Black unification? Finally, how does liberalism bear resemblance to colonialism? In chapter one we recall that White citizenry predicates itself on norms based in Whiteness , (i.e. hard work, education, high socioeconomic status). Similarly, liberalism comprises of democratic, capitalist, and human rights values. Both systems determine the acceptance of a minority group or nation-state, given that they follow the aforementioned paradigms . Using Ghana as a case study to delve into Kwame Nkrumah’s Pan-African leadership, I argue that liberalism is an ideology rooted in colonialism and serves as a global index of White citizenship . Its disruption of transatlantic Black unification efforts further relies on three elements: primitivism, patronization, and the manipulation of power. In the course of this chapter, I first trace the damaging outcomes colonialism induced within Ghana’s infrastructure. I subsequently discuss the role that late Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah played in buttressing the Pan-African Movement and how Pan-African efforts were curbed by liberal agendas within international politics. Finally, I explain the similarities that modern liberal ideology shares with White citizenry and recapitulates colonial iniquities. If we consider that liberalism resembles colonialism, which ignited calamities within Ghana’s infrastructure, it would then hold that liberal ideology is non-ideal for all nation-states and operates to homogenize the rest of the international community according to Western tradition. Pan-Africanism’s Black unification agenda would thus stand in opposition to an empire of Western governance that has been solidified by colonial conquest. Remembering that antiBlackness works to sustain White supremacy by degrading Black culture, we must then recognize that anti- Blackness and White citizenry function globally through liberalism . We must further recognize that liberalism is an ideology fueled with self-interests that enhance the authority of the West at the expense of nations who refuse Western paradigms . Ghana’s Pan-African Movement, which represented historic collaboration between Africans and African Americans, challenged such paradigms and thus became a target for the West. Attached to various meanings and agendas, liberalism on the one hand is perceived as a progressively humanitarian endeavor whose mission is to bestow peace and democracy unto states in extreme turmoil. On the other hand, liberalism is viewed as a homogenizing scheme, seeking to maintain the global power and selfinterests of Western entities.
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- Winter '16
- Jeff Hannan
- World War II, Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere