Proper marking and safety standards and to ensure

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proper marking and safety standards – and to ensure that permits, if required, have been obtained in advance of the goods arriving in the United States. 110 For some products, a declaration or proof of conformity or compliance must be submitted by the manufacturer or the importer upon or prior to importation. 2. However, assessing conformity with technical regulations is also in certain cases done by the Federal Government (e.g. by the Food and Drug Administration), State or local governments, or by an independent testing authority. To assess compliance, the Government may give official recognition to an independent testing authority through accreditation or similar measures. The U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, in cooperation with other agencies responsible for regulated products, such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) 111 , is responsible for enforcing technical regulations at the border, and taking enforcement actions when such regulations are violated, including refusing admission. Assessment of conformity with SPS requirements, especially for plants and animal products, is generally carried out by APHIS and FSIS inspectors located at the borders (see below). (c) International cooperation on technical regulations 1. Title IV of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 as amended provides the legal basis on which the WTO TBT Agreement and the SPS Agreement are implemented. The U.S. TBT enquiry point is the NIST. 2. The United States participates actively in the WTO TBT Committee; it made 45 notifications between January 2001 and end-June 2003, all under Article 2.9 of the TBT Agreement. 112 The largest number of notifications were from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (24 notifications), the Food and Drug Administration, FDA, (24), and the Department of Agriculture (17). No notifications of proposed U.S. sub-federal measures have been received by the WTO. 3. Between January 1995 and June 2003, the United States submitted 83 notifications related to labelling. 113 Of these, 14 have been received since 2001. In general, since 1995, six of the 83 U.S. notifications on labelling raised specific trade concerns by other WTO Members. 114 One instance involved a requirement to clarify the definition of "United States cattle" and "United States fresh beef products" for labelling purposes. 115 In October 2002, the United States notified the WTO that the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (see also Chapter IV(2)) amended the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 to require the USDA to issue country of origin labelling guidelines for voluntary use by retailers who wish to notify their customers of the country of origin of beef (including veal), lamb, pork, fish, perishable agricultural commodities, and peanuts. 116 This measure raised concerns from Canada, joined by Argentina and Brazil. 117 110 Further information on U. S. import requirements is available online at: http://www. customs.
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