Women more likely to recognize symptoms and seek

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8. Women more likely to recognize symptoms and seek assistance than men 9. The greater the cultural distance from the mainstreamculture the greater negative response by society to mental illness “Mental ILLNESS is viewed as the maladaptive responses to stressors from the internal/external environment, evidence by thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are age incongruent with local/cultural norms, and that interfere with the individual's social, occupational, and/or physical functioning”PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION TO STRESSAll individuals exhibit some characteristics associated with both mental health and mental illness at any given point in time An individual's response to stressful situations is influenced by their perception of the event and predisposing factors(heredity, temperament, learned response patterns, developmental maturity, coping strategies, support systems)Anxiety and grief are two major primary psychological response patterns to stress Anxiety- a diffuse apprehension that is vague in nature and is associated with feelings of uncertainty and helplessness Grief- is a subjective state of emotional, physical, and social responses to the loss of a valued entity - ANXIETY Anxiety- a diffuse apprehension that is vague in nature and is associated with feelings of uncertainty and helplessness It is such a common feeling almost considered universal; arises from chaos, confusion, fears of the unknown/ambiguity. Anxiety becomes problematic when it interferes with the ability to meet basic needs Peplau described 4 levels of anxiety (*TABLE 2-1 lEVELS OF ANXIETY pg 18*)1. Mild Anxiety seldom a problem; associated with tension experienced in the response to events of day to day living Prepares you for action; sharpens the senses, ↑ motivation, ↑ productivity, ↑ perceptual field → heightened awareness of environmentLearning is enhanced; able to function at optimal level 2. Moderate AnxietyPerceptual field diminishes; less alert to events, ↓ attention span, ↓ ability to concentrate, ↑ muscular tension and restlessness Assistance with problem solving necessary 3. Severe Anxiety3
Perceptual field greatly diminished; concentration centers wither on one particular detail or many extraneous details; Attention span is limited → difficult with even the simplest tasks Physical symptoms (headaches, palpitations, insomnia)Emotional symptoms (confusion, dread, horror)4. Panic Anxiety (most intense) Unable to focus on even one detail in the environment; misperceptions are common and a loss of contact with reality may occur → hallucinations or delusions Behavior → wild and desperate actions or extreme withdrawal; Communication → becomes ineffective **feeling of terror, convinced that they have a life threatening illness/fear that they are going crazy/losing controlProlonged anxiety can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion which can be life threatening 4
Behavioral Adaptation Responses to Anxiety Mild Anxiety → COPING BEHAVIORS

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