COP composition has five levels of participation which comprise of the core

Cop composition has five levels of participation

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to create an environment that will facilitate materialization of new communities of practice. COP’s composition has five levels of participation which comprise of the core group whose major task is to nurture and engage the community, the active members who are practitioners define the community and are skilled, and the occasional participants who come in when the topics are of special interest to them, the peripheral members who have ties to the community but with less authority and engagement, and finally, the transactional members who interact with the community on an intermittent basis (Wenger,, 2002). In establishing COP’s, KIPPRA as an organization should exercise fortitude as the participation of members solely relies on having them experience the value of learning together in the COP’s over and over before they are ready to make a commitment. However, KIPPRA can also embark on setting up COP’s that last for shorter periods on a need basis or as long as members find value in their learning together. The level of participation in the COP’s should also not be mandatory as COP’s are mostly informal and rarely seen as a person’s main profession, but the management should encourage and even lead in the formation of COPs. Figure 6.1: A sample of the members and level of participants in an organizational Community of Practice (COP), (Wenger and Tryner, 2013)
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115 6.4.6 Proposed model for tacit knowledge use and reuse for innovation and competitive advantage The findings of the study show that KIPPRA recognizes knowledge as an asset. However, KIPPRA does not have a tacit KM strategy; therefore a lot of tacit knowledge is not harnessed by the institute. No effort has been made in ensuring that there is a right environment, infrastructure, leadership and processes to ensure that tacit knowledge is harnessed. The study recommends a model/framework that could be used to ensure that tacit knowledge is effectively used and reused for organizational growth and competitive advantage. The study combined five key elements (Human Resource, Technology, Organizational Culture, Leadership and Organizational Processes) as identified by scholars (Awad & Ghaziri, 2007; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Laudon & Laudon, 2009; Wenger,, 2002; Jain 2006, Polanyi, 1966) as essential elements for successful tacit KM. KIPPRA is a fairly small organization with a population of 45 fulltime employees who are well versed with the economic development of Kenya. The combination of formal (workgroups, teams) and informal (COP’Ss) structures is fundamental in service delivery of the shifting market requests of KIPPRA’s clients. This combined with organizational culture, leadership, technology and processes will enable the harnessing of tacit knowledge for the much needed competitive advantage. The model also borrows from Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) SECI model for tacit knowledge extraction and reuse.
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