Use tnf for rheumatoid arthritis and crohns disease

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Use TNF for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn’s Disease Prostoglandins: produces heat, comes from Arachodonic Acid from the membrane of platelets, NSAIDS are anti-inflammatory drugs that block the Arachodonic Acid 5. Define immune tolerance Immune Tolerance— Phenomonon that occurs when a person or animal should respond to form and antibody to immune response. Body has to tolerate the epitope. 6. Define Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity— Over respond to an antigen 7. Discuss the four types of hypersensitivity reactions and list at least one causitive agent of each. Allergies or Anaphylactic Reaction --due to IgE making. Allergies are class 1. The IgE arms the basophil or mast cell -- Allergies are not as severe as anaphylactic reaction. First time introducing it, second time there will be a reaction. ----Testing--- -- Scratch or injection test on arm or back with allergen on it. This is performed directly on patient --RAST Test— Radio Allergen Sorbent Test --looks for IgE antibody. done by radio activity a long time ago --EAST Test—Enzyme Allergen Sorbent Test —now an enzyme is used to detect IgE antibody ****When given allergy shot the body forms IgG antibodies instead of IgE. IgG picks up allergen and doesn’t harm basophil or mast cell. Changing the route of administration changes antibody produced. Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity --Due to IgD or IgM --cells that antibody are attached to are destroyed --examples—hemolytic transfusion, hemolytic disease of the newborn, autoimmune hemolytic anemia --body makes antibody to own red cell and they are destroyed --Tissue reactions—thyroid (hoshiomoto) Type I Diabetes Type III Hypersensitivity (antigen soluble) --IgG or IgM --Compliment is activated --antigen is soluble (not associated with tissue, blood, or cell) --disease due to immune complexes --examples—lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, serum sickness (Serum sickness—immunization with animal serum causes body to fight off disease, but body makes antibody to animal serum. Causes fever, nausea, and joint pain)
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Type IV Hypersensitivity --Cellualar process no antibodies involved --called delayed type hypersensitivity --TB testing—if you react it is a type IV hypersensitivity --contact dermatitis—(poison ivy is not an antibody it is a cell reaction) --latex allergy is a contact dermatitis Laboratory Methods 1. Define Cross reactivity— epitopes are similar and antibody can react to either or. Affinity and avidity —how well does the antibody bind to the antigen. Prozone —to much antibody for the amount of antigen Postzone —to much antigen for the amount of antibody Zone of equivalence —maximum concentration of each to see the reaction Antibody Titer —concentration of antibody 2. Describe how antigen-antibody reaction result in lattice formation Lattice formation—combining antigen/antibody together and they get so big they start precipitating out.
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