o Diet soft drinks were not associated with the risk of gout o Assume 20 years

O diet soft drinks were not associated with the risk

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o Diet soft drinks were not associated with the risk of gout. o Assume 20 years of consumption and an average of 50 increased cases – the results suggest 1-2 added cases of gout per 100 persons because of drinking sugar sodas. o The contribution of these beverages to the risk of gout in the population is likely modest . o Complicated chemical mechanism of fructose to uric acid Glucose does not follow this path. Role of sugar in cataracts o About 90% of persons between 75 and 84 of age have some opaque areas o Sometimes called ‘sugar cataracts’ of ‘diabetes cataracts’ o Clouded lens sends off ‘weird’ light patterns o The human eye lens consists of a mix of several proteins. Protective proteins prevent these proteins from aggregating. o If this protective function fails, the lens blurs. o This has to do with protein folding and clumping. o Claude Monet suffered badly from cataract. o The operation consists of replacing the lens. Topic 4 – Lesson 3: Fats Contain only H, O, C Store energy, insulation and buoyancy (float on water), padding and hormone production
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Chemistry of food Women who swim are almost as good as men because of their fat Glycerol (CH 2 – O – C=O) + 3 carbon chains Tristearin: a saturated solid fat of 18 carbons in each chain You could have 2 chains of 18 carbons and 1 chain of 6 carbons Saturated fats are solid at room temperature (ex: butter) Unsaturated fats have double bonds (often liquid) Polyunsaturated fats have more than one double bond All fats are 9 cal/g Coconut oil has almost only saturated fat Canola oil has very little saturated fat Saltflower and sunflower oil are high in polyunsaturated fats (60% of chains have more than one double bond) Olive oil has large amount of monounsaturated fat Key products o Lard (beef tallow) 100% pig fat, white Saturated/unsaturated: 60/40 Beef tallow: 40/60 Carelessness of production of lard: people fell into the vats, overlooked for days Mongolia use fats from goats and sheep Stir in noodle or rice and often twice a day Traditional butter-making from the Yak o Butter Mostly saturated Crisco: mostly saturated fats and 20% water o Margarine Variety Plant oils with 20-60% of water Invented in France in 1869 Napoleon promoted margarine for the army and lower classes World War II: saturated fat mixture and coloring it Becel light: 58% water Heat margarine in beaker, melts, let it differentiate Unsaturated, saturated, water: from top to bottom Guar/caroub gum gives it consistency Partially hydrogenated soya oil Trans Fat free margarine Fat: 2g vs 11g in butter Trans fats: 0g, 0.5g in butter and 2.5g in margarine
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Chemistry of food Do not freeze because there is water To prepare margarine it is usually necessary to hydrogenate many of the double bonds into single bonds.
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