oDiet soft drinks were not associated with the risk of gout. oAssume 20 years of consumption and an average of 50 increased cases – the resultssuggest 1-2 added cases of gout per 100 persons because of drinking sugar sodas. oThe contribution of these beverages to the risk of gout in the population is likelymodest.oComplicated chemical mechanism of fructose to uric acidGlucose does not follow this path. Role of sugar in cataractsoAbout 90% of persons between 75 and 84 of age have some opaque areasoSometimes called ‘sugar cataracts’ of ‘diabetes cataracts’ oClouded lens sends off ‘weird’ light patternsoThe human eye lens consists of a mix of several proteins. Protective proteins preventthese proteins from aggregating.oIf this protective function fails, the lens blurs. oThis has to do with protein folding and clumping. oClaude Monet suffered badly from cataract. oThe operation consists of replacing the lens. Topic 4 – Lesson 3: FatsContain only H, O, CStore energy, insulation and buoyancy (float on water), padding and hormone production
Chemistry of food Women who swim are almost as good as men because of their fatGlycerol (CH2– O – C=O) + 3 carbon chainsTristearin: a saturated solid fat of 18 carbons in each chainYou could have 2 chains of 18 carbons and 1 chain of 6 carbonsSaturated fats are solid at room temperature (ex: butter)Unsaturated fats have double bonds (often liquid)Polyunsaturated fats have more than one double bondAll fats are 9 cal/gCoconut oil has almost only saturated fatCanola oil has very little saturated fatSaltflower and sunflower oil are high in polyunsaturated fats (60% of chains have more thanone double bond)Olive oil has large amount of monounsaturated fat Key productsoLard (beef tallow)100% pig fat, whiteSaturated/unsaturated: 60/40Beef tallow: 40/60Carelessness of production of lard: people fell into the vats, overlooked fordays Mongolia use fats from goats and sheepStir in noodle or rice and often twice a dayTraditional butter-making from the YakoButterMostly saturatedCrisco: mostly saturated fats and 20% wateroMargarineVarietyPlant oils with 20-60% of waterInvented in France in 1869Napoleon promoted margarine for the army and lower classesWorld War II: saturated fat mixture and coloring it Becel light: 58% waterHeat margarine in beaker, melts, let it differentiate Unsaturated, saturated, water: from top to bottom Guar/caroub gum gives it consistencyPartially hydrogenated soya oilTrans Fat free margarineFat: 2g vs 11g in butterTrans fats: 0g, 0.5g in butter and 2.5g in margarine
Chemistry of food Do not freeze because there is waterTo prepare margarine it is usually necessary to hydrogenate many of thedouble bonds into single bonds.