Lecture 7 – Cardiovascular Physiology I

Converted to bicarbonate with the aid of carbonic

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Converted to bicarbonate with the aid of carbonic anhydrase The reaction of CO2 and water is rate limiting This enzyme is only present in RBCs Carbonic acid dissociates very rapidly into bicarbonate and a hydrogen ion Bicarbonate is going to be transported out of the RBC to the plasma by a transporter in  exchange for a chloride ion This is ubiquitous in vertebrates This exchange has to take place to maintain electroneutrality Removing the bicarbonate into the plasma pushes the reaction of co2 and water to the  right within the RBC What happens to the proton?
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It binds to deoxyhemoglobin which has a big affinity for hydrogen ions Goes back to the lungs As blood flows a fraction of oxyhemoglobin releases O2 to be come deoxyhemoglobin Some protons are not bound to hemoglobin When the systemic venous blood passes through the lung capillaries, the alveolar PCO2  is very low As a result the plasma PP of CO2 is relatively high Net diffusion of CO2 into the alveolus from the blood This lowers the plasma PCO2 and rxns are driven to the left As rapidly as CO2 is generated it diffuses into the alveoli Organization of the Cardiovascular System Blood as a transport medium Heart as the pump, generates pressure gradients which generates flow Distribution network – blood vessels Overview Primary function of the cardiovascular system is to circulate blood and the things that  are in blood Flow rates and pressures are not independent Tetrapod vertebrates Two systems with equal flow Pulmonary circulation Blood from the right ventricle through the lungs to the left atrium Only sends blood through te pulmonary arteries to the lungs and then come back to the  lungs
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Volume of blood per time unit is exactly the same as that which goes through the  systemic circulation Systemic Circulation Left ventricle to highly complex system of arteries and veins that go through hall the 
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