or another major national publication or if a speaker has been invited to give

Or another major national publication or if a speaker

This preview shows page 69 - 71 out of 98 pages.

or another major national publication, or if a speaker has been invited to give a TED Talk, the audience generally can assume that the speaker or writer has some credibility to write or speak about the issue at hand. This kind of ethos is known as situated ethos . Just because a person is not a renowned expert on a subject does not mean that he or she cannot argue effectively in speaking or writing; however, this does mean that the speaker or writer will have to work to establish ethos in order to be effective. One of the primary ways that speakers and writers do this is by citing experts on the topic. In the same manner that students must demonstrate that they have done their research by citing sources in essays, speakers and writers who want to be persuasive by establishing their credibility, or ethos, need to demonstrate that they have done sufficient research on the subject in order to offer an informed argument. This kind of ethos is known as invented ethos . The effectiveness of the editorial, "First Up, Mental Illness. Next Topic Is Up to You" by Nichols Kristof (2014), relies heavily on the author’s ethos. Kristof was educated at both Harvard and Oxford, has won two Pulitzer Prizes, and has been writing for the New York Times for more than 30 years, all of which provide situated ethos. He also cites reliable
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organizations and publications such as the National Health Institutes and the American Journal of Psychiatric Reports to demonstrate that he has done his research in areas in which he lacks specific expertise, which provides invented ethos. Helpful Hint Questions to ask to identify ethos: Why should I listen to this speaker or writer? Has the speaker or writer demonstrated that he or she has something significant and credible for me to listen to or read? Does the speaker or writer have any expertise on this subject in terms of education or professional experience? If not, does he or she demonstrate that he or she knows enough about this subject to be credible? Pathos Pathos is commonly referred to as emotion. As a rhetorical appeal, its function is to put the audience in a favorable state of mind by evoking an emotional response so that they will be receptive to the speaker or writer’s argument. Emotions are a powerful force in the decision- making process; therefore, they can be very useful in persuasive communication by making the audience feel sympathy and desire to take action. In order to judge appeals to pathos, readers should determine whether the emotions the speaker or writer attempts to arouse make the argument more effective. Ben Mattlin (2012) uses pathos effectively in his article "Suicide by Choice? Not So Fast" by drawing the reader into a compelling narrative that arouses feelings of sorrow and pity in the reader. He explains, “When a surgical blunder put me into a coma from septic shock, the doctors seriously questioned whether it was worth trying to extend my life. My existence seemed pretty tenuous anyway, they figured” (Mattlin, 2012, para. 7). Mattlin skillfully uses his own
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