abundant. Mrs. Fox and her three daughters continued to hold the place of honour in the spiritualistic world, and gave exhibitions in many large towns. In 1850, while they were at Buffalo, some professors of the Buffalo University showed that the raps could be produced by the medium's joints, and shortly afterwards Mrs. Norman Culver, a relative by marriage of the Fox family, declared that Margaretta Fox had shown her how the rappings were obtained by means of the joints. She also alleged that Catherine Fox had told her that in a seance at Rochester where the medium's ankles were held to prevent fraud, a Dutch servant maid had rapped in the cellar on a signal from the medium. This latter statement was hotly denied by the spiritualists, but no reputation was attempted with regard to the other allegations. Many mediums confessed that they had resorted to trickery, but the tide of popular favour in America held to the actuality of the manifestations. These, as time went on, became more varied and complex. Table - turning and tilting (q.v.) in part replaced the simpler phenomena of raps. Playing on musical instruments by invisible hands, " direct " spirit writing, bell - ringing, levitation, and materialisation of spirit hands, are some of the phenomena which were witnessed and vouched for by such distinguished sitters as judge Edmonds, the Hon N. P. Tallmadge, Governor of Wisconsin, and William Lloyd Garrison. We find the levitation of the medium Daniel D. Home (q.v.) recorded at an early stage in his career. Slate - writing (q.v.) and playing on musical instruments were also feats practised by the spirits who frequented Koon's " spirit - room " (q.v.) in Dover, Athens County, Ohio. At Keokuk, in Iowa, in 1854, two mediums spoke in tongues identified on somewhat insufficient data, as " Swiss, " Latin, and Indian languages, and henceforward trance - speaking in their native language and in foreign tongues was much practised by mediums. The recognised foreign tongues included Latin and Greek French, German, Spanish, Italian, Chinese and Gaelic, but generally the trance utterances, when they were not in English, were not recognised definitely as any known language, and frequently the " spirits " themselves interpreted the " tongue." The latter phenomena are evidently akin to the early outpourings of the " possessed " or the articulate but meaningless fluency of ecstatics during a religious epidemic. There have been cases, however, where persons in a state of exaltation have spoken fluently in a language of which they know but little in their normal state. Many of the " spirit " writings were signed with he names of great people - particularly Franklin, Swedenborg, Plato, Aristotle, St. John and St. Paul. Trance lecturing before audiences was also practised, books of inspirational utterances were published, and poetry and drawings produced in abundance. These automatic productions had a character of their own - they were vague, high - sounding, incoherent, and distinctly reminiscent. In cases where they displayed even a fair amount of merit, as in the poems of T. L.
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- Spring '09
- Astral projection, Astral body, Astral plane, Forbidden Secrets, Ancestral Heritage Office