It was chosen because the Jewish population of Israel consisted of refugees and migrants from many countries who spoke many languages●The task of reviving Hebrew as a living language was formidableCeltic- (Welsh, Irish, Breton, Scottish, Cornish)●Welsh--○It remained dominant in Wales until the nineteenth century, when many English speakers migrated there to work in coal mines and factories○In the county of Gwynedd, two-thirds speak Welsh○Britain’s 1988 Education Act made Welsh language training a compulsory subject in all schools in Wales, and Welsh history and music have been added to the curriculum○All local governments and utility companies are now obliged to provide services in Welsh○Knowledge of Welsh is now required for many jobs, especially in public service, media, culture, and sports●Irish--○Irish is spoken by 350,000 people on a daily basis, and 1.5 million say that they can speak it○English road signs were banned from portions of western Ireland in 2005○Irish singers, including many rock groups have begun to record and perform in Gaelic○In the 1300’s, the Irish were forbidden to speak their own language in the presence of their English masters○The teacher carved a notch in the stick every day the child used an Irish word, and at the end of theday meted out punishment based on the number of tallies○Parents encouraged their children to learn English so that they could compete for jobs
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Name___William Gehrke_____________Chapter 5: Languages●Breton--○In Brittany, an isolated peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean--around 250,000 people speak Breton regularly○It differs from the other Celtic languages in that it has more French words●Scottish--○In Scotland 59,000, or 1 percent of the people, speak Scottish Gaelic○It was carried from Ireland to Scotland about 1,500 years ago●Cornish--○Became extinct in 1777, with the death of the language’s last known native speaker, Dolly Pentreath, who lived in Mousehole○Before she died, an English historian wrote down as much of her speech as possible so that future generations could study the Cornish language○A few hundred people have become fluent in the formerly extinct Cornish language, which was revived in the 1920’s○It is taught in grade schools and adult evening courses and is used in some church services○Som banks accept checks written in it○Because the language became extinct, it is impossible to know precisely how to pronounce Cornish wordsAustralia-●1 percent of the population is Aboriginal●Many elements are now being preserved●Bu education is oriented toward teaching English rather than maintaining local languages●English is the language of instruction throughout Australia, and others are relegated to the status of secondlanguage●Fear of immigration was especially strong in Australia because of its proximity to other Asian countries●The Australian government now merely requires that immigrants learn English New Zealand-
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Name___William Gehrke_____________Chapter 5: Languages●
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- Fall '15
- Tricia Hayes
- The Bible, Indo-European languages, Germanic languages