MS suggests three reasons for the individual behaviour of policy entrepreneurs

Ms suggests three reasons for the individual

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MS suggests three reasons for the individual behaviour of policy entrepreneurs. They are (1) to promote of personal interest and their values, (2) to affect public policy, or (3) because they are “policy groupies” (Kingdon 2011, p. 122). Compared to the boundedly rational individual of AC , MS’s view of the individual is narrower and more aligned with traditional rational choice motivations, as it focuses on personal gain, and does not explicitly consider altruistic behaviour. An important addition by Kingdon to the garbage can model is t he “policy community of specialists [...] which concentrates on generating proposals” and who “are scattered both through and outside of government” (Kingdon 2011, p. 117). The extent of the fragmentation of the policy communities’ influences affects the stability of the agenda (Kingdon 2011, p. 121). Where policy communities are tight-knit, agendas are more stable. Major changes are more likely in fragmented policy systems (Kingdon 2011; Zahariadis 2007) . “Collective choices are not merely the derivativ es of individuals, but rather the combined result of structural forces and internal processes that are highly context dependent” (Zahariadis 2003, p. 437) . Compared to AC’s concept of coalition, the criteria to identify these policy communities are poorly developed and the principles for collective action and collective choice are not specified in detail. For example, MS has not developed criteria that identify policy communities. Schlager noted that of the public policy constructs in her review, MS pays the least amount of attention to 26 MS’ and Simon’s assumption also differ with respect to serial processing capacity: “Whereas Simon in general imposes a certain rational [serial] order on the process of policy making, theorizing from the micro to the macro level, multiple streams attempts to uncover [parallel] rationality, theorizing from the macro to the micro.” (Zahariadis 2007, p. 68).
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75 collective action (Schlager 2007). Instead, its focus on the individual explains “the great man of politics”, who cannot control events, but anticipate s and bends them to his favour (Schlager 2007, p. 302). MS does not specify the type of change under investigation. The motors of change for MS are partly chance constrained by the environment and entrepreneurs (Capano 2009). The causal mechanisms that lead to policy change are a combination of exogenous and endogenous factors. Capano (2009, p. 24) criticises MS for its emphasis on exogenous factors and for not adequately allowing for feedback effects. The processes within MS are fluid, rather than mechanical, leading to a limit to its ability to predict. It is important to note that fluidity does not mean ‘random’. While serendipity plays a major role in whether an item makes it onto the agenda (Schlager 2007), the processes are constrained and influenced by the actions of PEs through coupling (Zahariadis 1996) and institutional factors (Capano 2009; Kingdon 2011, p. 230). In fact, it has been suggested MS would benefit from a closer consideration of institutional factors (Capano 2009; Schlager 2007).
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  • Fall '13
  • Government, The Land, International Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards Board, Australian Accounting Standards Board, Snow

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