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from those presented by the experimenter. There are four types of strategies available : 1)Conservative focusing: actively reformulating hypotheses and selecting instances to see if your hypotheses are correct by focusing on one attribute at a time and by selecting instances that vary only on that attribute.2)Focus gambling: selecting instances that vary from the first positive instance in more than one attribute.3)Simultaneous scanning: keeping in mind all possible hypotheses and tryingto eliminate as many as possible with each instance selection.*Elimination strategy4)Successive scanning: formulating a single hypothesis and testing it by selecting instances that confirm it until you find one that doesn’t. *stab in the dark strategyMidterm 2 PSYC 213
Concept formation : Reception TaskDefinition : a concept formation task in which instances presented to the participants are chosen by the experimenter. There are two types of strategiesavailable : 1)Wholist strategy : initially hypothesizing that all attributes are members of the concept. If the new instance doesn’t confirm the hypothesis, thenyou form another one with whatever the first and second instance have in common.2)Partist strategy : initially hypothesizing that only some attributes are members of the concept. If the new instances show a pattern of similarity, then you adjust you hypothesis to fit the pattern. *heavy on memory, because you have to remember all attributes.Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Issues with rule-based approaches (concept formation tasks)There are not always explicit rules to define a concept in the real-world and some concept simply don’t have explicit rules.E.g. The concept « student ».We don’t always explicitly test these rules, as some concepts are learned implicitly.E.g. Language learningItems can belong to different categoriesE.g. Is a chicken a better example of a farm animal or bird?Category membership has very defined boundaries with a rule-based approach, while there is more complexity of concepts in real world.E.g. when does a mug stops being a mug?Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Learning Complex RulesFinite State Grammar (railroad diagrams) : a set of rulesorganized in a diagrams that can only generate a fixednumber of letter/word sequences.Artificial grammar learningImplicit learningExplicit learningUnintentional: participants will be askedto memorize strings of letters without knowing there are rules behind them.Intentional: participants will be asked to memorize strings of letters and come up with rules about it.Both conditions lead to good performance, suggesting that we do not need to beaware that learning is taking place to actually learn.Issue with Prototypical ApproachDoes not account for how context can determine aconceptMidterm 2 PSYC 213
Midterm 2 PSYC 213
Cognitive unconscious hypothesisDefinition: hypothesis that implicit learning represents an evolutionarily primitive form of unconscious cognition, as opposed to explicit learning, which is a recent form learning that is linked with academic intelligence.