Besides educating training and development

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is in favor of them, recruit personnel that could support them. Besides, educating, training and development opportunities could be given primarily to those who are in the same side with management. More than that, wage or salary practices can be a part of increasing performance through administrators’ purposes with specific personnel. Politics, in terms of principles to achieve strength, could shape any HRM function in an organization. In relation with this, relations with unions demonstrate the labor issues approach of a management. Furthermore, principles such as gender equality or inequality, implementations of wage and salaries, equity or imbalance of units which shows horizontal or vertical organizational structure, having or dismissing good relations with labor market institutions, are all the indicators of HR politics which can be a part of gaining power in an establishment. 2.2.8. Nature and attitude of the work group: Every person carries his/her cultural background to organizations which he/she becomes a member. Therefore, cultural characteristics as tendencies to be a hard worker, adaptable, self oriented or cooperative can be significant factors affecting HRM practice. Equally, the feelings of belonging and loyalty, as assuming an organizational atmosphere like a home can increase personal and organizational performance, are important dimensions or indicators. In other words, cultures that encourage cooperation could increase the outcomes of an establishment. Also, cultures those, which are exalting hard working behavior, would contribute organizational success. Cultural characteristics differentiate. Therefore, firms use training and education to achieve a unified organizational culture, which orients and motivates members to accomplish purposes. In other words, cultural diversity makes companies spend effort to integrate them. 2.3. Human Resource Management Models The notion of a HRM model is controversial. The debate centres on two fundamental questions. First, what is meant by the term 'human resource management'? For some, HRM represents a new approach to managing the labour process. For others, the term HRM is simply a relabeling and repackaging of 'progressive' personnel management. Legge (1989, 1995) and Blyton and Turnbull (1992) point out that the HRM model remains an elusive concept and contains contradictions and paradoxes. Detractor view HRM as rhetoric to disguise the consequences of deregulation and downsizing: 'a mask for the less acceptable face of the enterprise culture'.
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The 'soft' version of HRM emphasizes the importance of high commitment, workplace learning and enlightened leadership. Most normative HRM models, whether US or British, assert that the organization's 'human resources' are valued assets, not a variable cost, and emphasize the commitment of employees as a source of competitive advantage. The notion that commitment and performance can be enhanced by leadership style is based on the high-trust assumptions of McGregor's Theory Y.
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