The transition process may be slow and incremental, or rapid. In addition, managers can draw upon evidence from the context and substance of change to marshal support and to legitimate their own proposals through organizational political action. It’s therefore the interaction between context, substance and political forces which shape the process of organizational change (Fruin, 1998). The fourth step is communicating the change vision since the real power of a vision is unleashed only when most of those involved in an enterprise or activity have a common understanding of its goals and direction. That shared sense of a desirable future can help motivate and co-ordinate the kind of actions that create transformations. The fifth step is empowering broad-based action to empower a broad base of people to take action by removing as many barriers to the implementation of the change vision as possible at this point in the process. The biggest obstacles that often need to be attacked are structures, skills, systems and supervisors (Hannan and Freeman, 1984). 2.4 Strategic Change Management in an Organization Considering the definition of strategic change, strategic change could be affected by the state of organization and its external environment. Because the performance of organization might dependent on the fit between organization and its external environment, the appearances of novel opportunities and threats in the external environment, in other words, the change of external environment, require organization to adapt to the external environments again. As a result, organizations would change their
19 strategy in response to the environmental changes. The states of the organization will also affect the occurrence of strategic change. They tend to adopt new strategies in the face of financial distress for the purpose of breaking the critical situations. Additionally, organizations would possess structural inertia that they tend to keep their previous structure and strategy (Hannan and Freeman, 1984). Ansoff and McDonnell (1990) defined strategic change as a shift in the product of services mix produced by the organization and/or the markets to which it is offered. This definition of strategy is further enriched by Porter when he came out with ideas on competitive advantage. Selection of an attractive product market position is strategy in which presently there is no competition and for the future an entry barrier can be created is a sought after strategic position. Therefore, strategic change occurs in different contexts and is based on the environment. The key objective of strategic change therefore is to enhance the competitiveness of the organization and continuous adaption of the organization to various environmental turbulence levels.