MSL101L04 Basic Map Reading SR.pdf lesson 4.pdf

Note new maps are printed using a dot instead of a

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Note. New maps are printed using a dot instead of a brown X. Maps with a brown X and meter elevation marks continue to be issued. TYPES OF SLOPES 9-15. The rate of rise or fall of a terrain feature is known as its slope. Depending upon the military mission, Soldiers may need to determine not only the height of a hill, but also the degree of the hill’s slope. The speed at which equipment or personnel can move is affected by the slope of the ground or terrain feature. This slope can be determined from the map by studying the contour lines—the closer the contour lines, the steeper the slope; the farther apart the contour lines, the gentler the slope. Four types of slopes that concern the military are gentle, steep, concave, and convex.
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Chapter 9 9-6 TC 3-25.26 15 November 2013 9-16. Contour lines showing a uniform, gentle slope are evenly spaced and wide apart. (See Figure 9-5.) Considering relief only, a uniform, gentle slope allows the defender to use grazing fire. The attacking force has to climb a slight incline. Figure 9-5. Uniform, gentle slope 9-17. Contour lines showing a uniform, steep slope on a map are evenly spaced but close together. The closer the contour lines, the steeper the slope. (See Figure 9-6.) Considering relief only, a uniform, steep slope allows the defender to use grazing fire, and the attacking force has to negotiate a steep incline. Figure 9-6. Uniform, steep slope
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Elevation and Relief 15 November 2013 TC 3-25.26 9-7 9-18. Contour lines showing a concave slope on a map are closely spaced at the top of the terrain feature and widely spaced at the bottom. (See Figure 9-7.) Considering relief only, the defender at the top of the slope can observe the entire slope and the terrain at the bottom, but cannot use grazing fire. The attacker would have no cover from the defender’s observation of fire, and the climb would become more difficult going farther up the slope. Figure 9-7. Concave slope 9-19. Contour lines showing a convex slope on a map are widely spaced at the top and closely spaced at the bottom. (See Figure 9-8.) Considering relief only, the defender at the top of the convex slope can obtain a small distance of grazing fire, but cannot observe most of the slope or the terrain at the bottom. The attacker has concealment on most of the slope and an easier climb nearing the top. Figure 9-8. Convex slope
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Chapter 9 9-12 TC 3-25.26 15 November 2013 TERRAIN FEATURES 9-25. All terrain features are derived from a complex landmass known as a mountain or ridgeline. (See Figure 9-15.) The term ridgeline is not interchangeable with the term ridge. A ridgeline is a line of high ground, usually with changes in elevation along its top and low ground on all sides, from which a total of 10 natural or man-made terrain features are classified. Figure 9-15. Ridgeline M AJOR T ERRAIN F EATURES 9-26. Major terrain features are hills, saddles, valleys, ridges, and depressions. They are uniquely represented on maps.
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