Technological innovations and redesigned financial

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…technologicalinnovationsandredesigned financial andmanagement structuressuch asmonopoliessought to maximize theexploitation of naturalresources and a growinglabor force.The emergence of anindustrial culturein theUnitedStates led to bothgreater opportunities for,and restrictions on,immigrants, minorities,and women.Technology and InnovationsVital to industrial progress were new inventions. These led to greater productivity in theworkplace and mass-produced goods in the home.Inventions…The first radical change in the speed of communications was the invention of a workabletelegraph by Samuel F. B. Morse, initially demonstrated in 1844. By the time of the CivilWar, electronic communication by telegraph and rapid transportation by railroad werealready becoming standard parts of modern living, especially in the northern states. Afterthe war, Cyrus W. Field's invention of an improved transatlantic cable in 1866 suddenlymade it possible to send messages across the seas in minutes. By 1900, cables linked allcontinents of the world in an electronic network of nearly instantaneous, globalcommunication. This communication revolution soon internationalized markets and pricesfor basic commodities, such as grains, coal, and steel, often placing local and smallerproducers at the mercy of international forces. Among the hundreds of noteworthyinventions of the late 19th century were the typewriter (1867), the telephone developed byAlexander Graham Bell (1876), the cash register (1879), the calculating machine (1887),and the adding machine (1888). These new products became essential tools for business.Products for the consumer that were in widespread use by the end of the century wereGeorge Eastman's Kodak camera (1888), Lewis E. Waterman's fountain pen (1884), andKing Gillette's safety razor and blade (1895)Edison and Westinghouse…Income from his early inventions enabled Edison to establish a research laboratory inMenlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876. This was the world's first modern research laboratory. Itranks among Edison's most important contribution to science and industry because itintroduced the concept of mechanics and engineers working on a project as a team ratherthan as lone inventors. Out of Edison's lab came more than a thousand patentedinventions, including the phonograph, the improvement of the incandescent lamp in 1879the dynamo for generating electric power, the mimeograph machine, and the motionpicture camera.Another remarkable inventor, George Westinghouse, held more than 400 patents and wasresponsible for developing an air brake for railroads (1869) and a transformer forproducing high-voltage alternating current (1885). The latter invention made possible thelighting of cities and the operation of electric streetcars, subways, and electrically poweredmachinery and appliances.

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