Immediately by us if cs no longer followed by us then

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immediately by US If CS no longer followed by US then CR fades and becomes extinct e.g. no longer sneeze then won’t leave room If CS presented again then CR will reappear (spontaneous recovery) e.g. will leave the room again Classical Conditioning
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Conditioning paradigm can be extended to include other stimuli by pairing it with the CS (higher order conditioning) e.g. meowing Stimulus generalisation – effect of CS also extends to similar stimuli that triggers the same response (response becomes generalised), can be adaptive e.g. all cats Stimulus discrimination – can discriminate or detect differences among similar stimuli and only respond to specific stimulus e.g. long-haired cats, not kittens. Classical Conditioning
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Learning depends on consequences of the response (reward and punishment) Can lead to enacting behaviours and withholding behaviours Often used to shape behaviour Reinforcers – anything that follows a response and increases the likelihood that a desired response will occur again. Reinforcer needs to suit the individual person Reinforcer most effective if it occurs directly after desired response If behaviour is no longer reinforced it becomes extinguished gradually Operant Conditioning
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Positive reinforcement – a pleasant or desirable reinforcer follows a response e.g. feel happy, get money Negative reinforcement – removes an unpleasant consequence that follows a response e.g. decreases anxiety, stops you getting wet in the rain Punishment – an unpleasant consequence follows a response that decreases the likelihood of a behaviour being repeated e.g. feel sad, costs you money. Operant Conditioning
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Partial reinforcement – learning still occurs even if reinforcement isn’t continuous (not every response reinforced) Reinforcer needs to suit the individual person Reinforcer most effective if it occurs directly after desired response Reinforcement schedules – fixed ration schedule, variable-ration schedule, fixed interval schedule, variable interval schedule. Stimulus generalisation and discrimination also occurs Operant Conditioning
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Fixed-Ratio Schedule – fixed number of responses must be made to obtain reinforcement e.g. Get paid according to the number of hours you work Variable-ratio response – varied number of responses before behaviour is reinforced e.g. Gambling – will eventually win so you keep trying Good response rates, unpredictability makes it resistant to extinction Fixed-interval schedule – Reinforced for first correct response after a certain amount of time has passed Average response rate, responses occur in spurts e.g. Get paid wages once a week if you attend work every day Variable-interval schedule – Reinforcement given for first correct response after different time intervals e.g. Inconsiderate employer – you get paid but never on time Slow, steady response rate, very resistant to extinction Schedules of Reinforcement
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