Structures Notes Trachea Tracheal cartilages Trachealis muscle A muscle between

Structures notes trachea tracheal cartilages

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Structures Notes Trachea Tracheal cartilages Trachealis muscle A muscle between the trachea and the esophagus to allow for expansion of the esophagus during swallowing. Carina A ridge of cartilage at the point of division of the trachea into the main bronchii. It is the most sensitive area for triggering a cough reflex. Right main bronchus Also called the right primary bronchus. More vertical than the left side and more prone to aspiration from foreign objects or fluid. Left main bronchus Also called the left primary bronchus. More horizontal than the right main bronchus. Right lobar bronchi Lobar bronchi can be called secondary bronchi. They branch from the main bronchi and enter the lung Left lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi Branches from the lobar bronchi. Each segmental bronchus enters each bronchopulmonary segment. Conducting and terminal bronchiole A network of airways without cartilage that are formed as the segmental bronchi subdivide and decrease in size. Will have smooth muscle encircling the bronchiole. The last branches of the conducting bronchioles and the final part of the conducting airway. Respiratory bronchiole The part of the bronchial tree involved in respiration. Alveolar duct 2-11 alveolar ducts arise from one respiratory bronchiole. Alveolar sacs Contains groups of 5-6 alveoli. Alveolus Basic unit of gas exchange. These structures can be observed in Figures 10.12-10.13 IDENTIFY the trachea, carina, right and left main bronchus, right lobar bronchi, left lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, conducting bronchiole
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Foster P a g e | 4 IDENTIFY the esophagus, trachealis muscle, tracheal cartilage IDENTIFY the respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, alveoli, and smooth muscle of the terminal bronchiole
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Foster P a g e | 5 VASCULATURE TO THE LUNGS Structures Notes Pulmonary trunk Vessel exiting the heart. Pulmonary arteries and branches Enters in the hilum. Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Pulmonary veins and branches Exits from the hilum. Carries oxygenated blood to the heart. Pulmonary capillary bed Site of gas exchange in the lung. These structures can be observed in Figures 10.21-10.23 THE MUSCLES OF VENTILATION Structures Notes Diaphragm This muscle separates the thoracic from the abdomen and it dome shaped. It has 3 apertures (holes) to accompany structures going to or coming from the abdomen. It is the primary muscle of inspiration. Origin: Back of xiphoid process, internal surfaces of ribs 7-12, costal cartilages and vertebrae L1-L3. Insertion: Central tendon ACTION: Inspiration by increasing the thoracic cavity volume and compression of the abdomen. INNERVATION: Phrenic nerve Central tendon Central aponeurotic part Aortic hiatus Aperture of the passageway for the aorta Esophageal hiatus Oval aperture for the passageway for the esophagus Caval opening Aperture in the central tendon for the passageway for the inferior vena cava External intercostals, scalenes, SCM
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