CLEP Principles of Management 1

Operational plans should be prepared by the people

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Operational plans should be prepared by the people who will be involved in implementation. There is often a need for significant cross-departmental dialogue as plans created by one part of the organization inevitably have implications for other parts. Operational plans should contain: clear objectives activities to be delivered quality standards desired outcomes staffing and resource requirements implementation timetables a process for monitoring progress. Tactical Plan - a specific short-term work plan that middle-level managers derive from broader strategic plans. Forecasting - what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like. The term is also used for describing the formal procedures used in such an endeavor, such as the creation of documents, diagrams, or meetings to discuss the important issues to be addressed, the objectives to be met, and the strategy to be followed. Beyond this, planning has a different meaning depending on the political or economic context in which it is used. Sales forecasting is probably the most important for operational planning. With Sales forecasting, a company tries to predict the demand for its products or services, is often most directly involved in operational and production planning. There are several methods of sales forecasting. A popular approach is market research, where customers are questioned, and their answers are used to forecast demand. This is known as market research--asking the customers what they think. The counterpart to planning is spontaneous order . There are two types of plans--standing and single-use. Standing plans include rules, procedures, and policies--plans that are always in effect. Single-use plan is broad and long-term, and may be made up of short-term projects. This describes a program, a single-use plan which usually covers a specific time period. Single-use plans include programs, projects, and budgets. (Contingency) A single-use plan is an operational plan that is only used one time as it is designed to deal with a non-recurring occasion or situation. First-level managers, such as team leaders and supervisors, enact operational plans as a means by which to achieve their job responsibilities. Operational plans directly support the tactical plans designed by middle-level managers. A rolling plan is a variant of a single-use plan--it involves a long term plan which is updated at regular intervals A contingency plan is part of the operational planning process, and involves anticipating what could go wrong, and preparing for it. The decision-making part of the planning process consists of two parts--problem solving and decision-making. Decision-making can be broken up into two parts-- problem solving, and then the actual decision-making. Problem-solving is where the problem is defined, and possible courses of action are identified. 93.
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Operational plans should be prepared by the people who will...

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