Goleman defined five components of emotionally

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Goleman defined five components of emotionally intelligent leaders: 1) Self-Awareness, 2) Self-Regulation, 3) Motivation, 4) Empathy, and 5) Social Skill. His premise is that there has been too much reliance on the rational side of leadership in leadership research studies and training done over the years. While his theory is focused on leader behavior, it has implications for the recipients of the behavior, the followers. Goleman argues that expectations for emotional intelligence are generally not captured in performance evaluation systems, but that the self-management (components 1 through 3) and interpersonal skills (components 4 and 5) represented by the five components are as essential for executive- level leaders as ―traditional‖ intelligence (measured by IQ tests) and technical competence. The significance of emotional intelligence for effective total quality lies in translating the ―vision‖ of an integrated leadership system and long -range planning process into action. Without credible self-management, represented by the first three components, it will be difficult for subordinates within the organization to ―buy into‖ the vision of the leader. Since we are arguing that teams, especially self -managed ones, potentially are composed only of leaders, an understanding of emotional intelligence has far broader implications that the behavior of ―formal‖ organizational leadership. Without mature empathy and social skills, represented by the last two components of Goleman‘s model, i t will be difficult for the employee-leaders to work effectively with customers, suppliers, and others outside the organization in order to build rapport needed for long-term enterprise effectiveness, which is critical for a TQ focused organization. In his recent book 10 , Goleman and his colleagues summarized research that had been done on aspects of emotional intelligence. They stated the impact that leadership can have in this way:
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When leaders drive emotions positively … they bring out everyone’s best. We call this effective resonance. When they drive emotions negatively … leaders spawn dissonance, undermining the emotional foundations that let people shine. Whether an organization withers or flourishes depends to a remarkable extent on leaders’ effectiveness in this primal emotional dimension. In an article leading up to the theory tested by the research in their book 11 , Goleman developed six leadership styles: coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pace- setting, and coaching. It was pointed out that none of these styles work in every situation, so the manager must be able to switch between them, to the extent possible, and as the situation demands. Interestingly, the style that would seem most applicable to quality management and improvement situations, the pace-setting style, has some serious negative implications, as well as having positive advantages. The pace-setting style is described as one where the leader holds up very high performance standards to his or her team members, and also ―walks the talk.‖ The downside risk of this approach is that employees tire of the constant demands brought on by the culture of high performance, and morale often takes a nosedive after some successes, or when the leader moves on.
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