Democratic governance can trigger a virtuous cycle of

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Democratic governance can trigger a virtuous cycle of development – as political freedom empowers people to press for policies that expand social and economic opportunities, and as open debates help communities shape their priorities
How does LB contradictions can be resolved?
What are political ideologies for?
Issue of orthodoxy vs pluralism Orthodoxy- the rulers should maintain one ideology as dominant to foster unity and harmony in society. Work best for traditional, pre-modern society Pluralism- the rulers allow different ideologies in society to complete. Work best for developed, complex society with high educational levels Political Spectrum from left to Rights The Right
Conservatism preserve the status quo, oppose change Reaction – throw back the forces of change, restore the old order Fascism – destroy democracy, repress all opposition and dissent, concentrate power in the hands of the top leader, mobilize the nation for war The Left: Radicalism – go to the roots of problems, change the foundations of society Socialism – more democracy, defend and advance the interests of workers through social reforms and redistribution of income Communism – mobilize workers to overthrow the capitalist class, abolish private property, build a one-party state with a planned state-owned economy The Centre: Liberalism – expand the scope of freedom, accept change, assert the primacy of individual rights, develop market economy and political pluralism Borrow ideas from Left and Right Extremist vs moderates In normal conditions, the political spectrum includes a range of ideological “colours” between the extremes Three major factors which produce, shape and reshape ideologies: time, class, crisis Time The flow of time – and the notion of change Social evolution and development The issue of change -social, technological, cultural, economic Also: age (individuals, countries, systems) and readiness to embrace change Influence of liberalism- liberalism what is now explains that it was created as the ideology of change Conservatism’s main problem: how to keep order in a changing world Class

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