Fenestrae into incisive canals further retardation of

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fenestrae into incisive canals; further retardation of ossification; overall among primates, greater degree of cerebral asymmetries; presence of estriol (female steroidal hormone) during pregnancy and menstrual cycle. "Great apes": large spines of cervical vertebrae; urethra and vagina empty into common vestibule Human-Gorilla : large size, more similar in body proportions than other LBHs (allometric); peroneal muscle in lower leg. Human-Pan : most data based on overall genetic similarity; some sites on mitochondrial DNA (small parts of one gene); hairs most sparse on ventral surface
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2 Pan -Gorilla : morphologies of "knuckle walking" (tightly bound wrist bones, distal end of radius "screws" into carpals, short flexor tendons of fingers/wrist, articular surface extends over head of metacarpal, first phalanx hyperextends over head of metacarpal, well-defined elbow joint articulations) Human-African ape: most reduced palatine ridges; previously believed that frontal sinuses (derived from ethmoid) were unique to these hominoids (not so, found among Miocene forms); sometime development of ear lobes Human-orangutan:
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